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Current Trends in the Power Quality Market February 28, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Current Trends in the Power Quality Market February 28, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Current Trends in the Power Quality Market February 28, 2006

2 EPRI Power Quality Study in U.S. 93% of all Voltage sags and outages are less than 10 seconds in duration

3 Continuous Power System(CPS) Critical Load Diesel Genset For continuous power after 10 seconds Battery string for immediate power Utility Power UPS Electronics ATS

4 Applications: Data Center Brokerage Firms, Credit Card Processing, Airline/Ticket Reservation Firms, Order Processing, Internet Presence Average Cost per Outage: $200k - $6.5M

5 Applications: Healthcare/Hospital MRI, CT, Cath Lab, Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Lab Average Cost Per Outage: ???

6 Applications: Process Control Semiconductor Manufacturing, Refineries, Petrochemical, Bakeries, Plastic Extrusion… J.I.T. Shipments Average Cost Per Outage: $40,000 - $2.5M

7 Costly Downtime! IndustryAvg cost of downtime ($/hr) Brokerage $6,450,000 Credit Card $2,600,000 Pay Per View $150,000 Home Shopping $113,000 Catalog Sales $90,000 Airline Reservations $90,000 Tele-Ticket $69,000 Package Shipping $28,000 ATM Fees $14,400 Source: 7x24 Exchange

8 Insurance Considerations Cost of Outage vs. Cost of Insurance Consider 5 year to 10 year life cycle cost Do Not Forget Maintenance Costs Which Energy Storage Technology is Best Suited for the Application?

9 Battery Technologies: 10 Year VRLA –A.k.a. Maintenance Free, Gel Cell, AGM –3 to 7 year life on most UPSs –Fails in open or shorted position –Low cost, most prevalent

10 Conventional Grid Design Improved High Rate Grid Design

11 Battery Technologies: 20 Year Sealed VRLA –12 to 18 year life (depending on number of outages; environment) –Fails in shorted position –About 2x initial cost of 10Year VRLA

12 Battery Technologies: 20 Year Wet Cell –17 to 20 year life –Very reliable –High maintenance, large footprint, eye wash station… –About 3x initial cost of 10 Year VRLA

13 Battery Maintenance IEEE Std Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries for Stationary Applications –Monthly: float voltage, charger output, temperature measurements –Quarterly: cell/unit ohmic values; temperature value of each negative terminal; representative sample of intercell connection resistances –Annually: cell-to-cell and terminal connection detail resistance of the entire battery; AC ripple current and/or voltage imposed on the battery

14 Battery Monitoring More Prevalent Real Time Status of Batteries Monitors: Impedance, Temperature, and Float Charging Voltage Cost = $6k to $10k per system (installed)

15 Other Energy Storage Technologies Flywheels Ultracapacitors Lithium Ion Batteries Thermal and Compressed Air Storage

16 UPS Electronics Trends

17 AC DC 6-Pulse Rectifier AC DC Inverter Static Bypass Batteries Input Filter Typical Double Conversion UPS Oneline

18 DIODE DIODE THYRISTOR IGBT IGBT:INSULATED GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR The Evolution of the Rectifier/Converter Device

19 The Evolution of the Converter (Rectifier) Circuit 6 PULSE CONV. 12 PULSE CONV. PWM CONV. PWM CONV.:PULSE WIDTH MODULATION CONVERTER CONV.:CONVERTER

20 6 PULSE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT AND INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORM Ic

21 . Id 12 PULSE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT AND INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORM Ic

22 .18 PWM THREE PHASE PWM CONVERTER CIRCUIT L C P N Sine Wave Form (pf=1.0) AC Input Current AC Input Voltage

23 % INPUT CURRENT HARMONIC CONTENT 6-PULSE THYRISTOR RECTIFIER 12-PULSE THYRISTOR RECTIFIER PWM IGBT CONVERTER 5f7f11f13f17f19f

24 PWM CONVERTER (2) The input power factor is UNITY (1.0) with PWM converter 0.8 – 0.85 with Thyristor rectifier

25 Results of IGBT Converter Generator Sizing Dependant Upon UPS Input Requirements Linear Current Draw = Smaller Generator IEEE 519 – Low Current Harmonics at Utility Source

26 INVERTER POWER DEVICE HISTORY THYRISTOR G T O IGBT BPT GTO:GATE TURN OFF THYRISTOR BPT:BIPOLAR POWER TRANSISTOR IGBT:INSULATED GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

27 High Speed PWM Inverter Improved output control characteristics resulting from the use of a high speed PWM inverter 16kHz Switching Frequency Supports nonlinear loads with minimal voltage distortion

28 IGBT CONV IGBT INV ALL IGBT UPS

29 Industry Trends

30 Also…Improving Efficiencies UPS efficiencies are up 10% over the past 15 years Most large UPS systems are currently over 93% efficient In Years, Most Large UPS Systems Will Be > 97% Efficient

31 Other Trends… Higher Output Power Factor on UPS –Match trends in the Computer Power Supply Market Internal Redundancy/Scalability for High 9s Applications –Avoid Single Points of Failure –Maintain High Efficiency

32 What does all this mean? Its dependant on your susceptibility. Given the quality of supply do I have to worry about problems with my equipment or systems?

33 What you should be asking… What is my susceptibility to power problems? What is my economic exposure to such problems? $$$$$$

34 The big picture… Its the complete electrical environment, not just the quality of supply.

35 What you should be asking… Does my power system have the capacity for my present needs? How about future growth? Be proactive!

36 Thank you for your time! Chuck Barry Central Region Sales Manager Toshiba UPS 8711 Burnet Road, Suite E-55 Austin, TX Tel. (512)


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