Presentation on theme: "Issues in ELT in Transitional Countries"— Presentation transcript:
1 Issues in ELT in Transitional Countries A Presentation by Hornby Scholars from four UK Universities
2 Overview Large Classes A Culture of Reading Curriculum Issues The Balance between Language and Teaching Skills in Teacher EducationEnglish Language Teacher Development and INSET in Countries in Transition
4 Number of Students Countries Institution Primary/ Secondary Tertiary SudanEthiopiaMozambiqueAfghanistanMexicoIndonesiaPakistanBrazilChile75-22050-12050-705045-50354530045-7545-20060
5 Things that teachers think cannot be in large classes Effective and efficient classroom managementMonitoring individual learners’ progressIntensive students’ interactionSufficient oral practiceIndividual presentationsGiving feedback to individual learners
6 Things that teachers think can be done in large classes Group workDynamic presentations and seminarsVariety of group productionLearners help each other in project workVariety of students and culturesTeam competition
7 Students’ view of large classes NegativeLack of participationBeing left outDisturbing and being disturbed by other studentsFrustrationPositiveFeel comfortable - always someone else to answer questionsEncouraging students’ group work outside classroom
8 Teachers’ strategies used in large classes Creative and dynamic teachingPeer to peer evaluationProcess evaluationGroup work, pair work and large group workCooperative learningProject work
9 Our ConcernsHow can we help teachers be aware of the possible advantages of large classes?How can we help teachers cope with the problems of teaching in large classes?
12 PEOPLE DON'T READ ENOUGH THESE DAYS AND THIS HAS A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON THEIR PROGRESS IN LEARNING ENGLISH
13 How Teachers view Reading Habits in L1 and L2 in educational institutions around the World OBJECTIVE OF SURVEYTo find out how teachers in some educational institutions around the world view reading habits of learners in L1 and L2
14 Reading HabitsPrivate PublicaSs Reading habits in L153% occasionally76% poorlyAccessibility to Reading materialsPrivate PublicaAvailability of reading materials47% good56% no accessbSolutions: leave it to institutions47 %40 %
15 Curriculum Issues Private Public a Time allotted for sustained silent reading47% occasionally44% occasionallybExistence of a Reading Programme53% none68% none
16 Reading Comprehension Writing 60% strongly 47% occasionally Impact of Reading extensivelyPrivate PublicaDifferences in language proficiency: SS who read and SS who do not read extensively53% strongly48% stronglybSkills developed:Reading ComprehensionWriting60% strongly47% occasionally84% strongly72% stronglycOther developmentsVocabulary DevelopmentAesthetic appreciation of textsCritical ReadingFluent Reading habits80% strongly60% occasionally47% strongly60% strongly100% strongly48% occasionally48% occasionally88% strongly
17 Factors hindering reading for pleasure Exam-focussed institutions pressurize Ss with study loadExam-oriented education fosters reading for learningLack of reading habit in L1, doesn’t nurture L2 reading habitsAddiction to electronic mediaCostly L2 reading materialsAbsence of a reading programme
18 Factors promoting reading for pleasure Ts familiarize students with reading materials
19 CONCLUSION:A GENERAL ABSENCE OF CULTURE OF READING
20 IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINED SILENT READING PROGRAMME IN A SCHOOL IN ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE Results shown by participants:Better attitude towards required texts and textbooksMore interest towards reading: students who previously hadn’t done soSs’ experience of reading in a conducive environment motivates themSs show more positive attitude towards other classes.Development of habit of reading.Reasons for closure of SSR programme in the schoolPeople involved not in favour of itLack of interest & dedication displayed by Ts who took partVery few Ts actually read with their pupils.Ts didn’t read so Ss didn’t read either.
21 How can ELT professionals overcome not only resource constraints but also systemic resistancewhen promoting reading in countries in transition?
24 curriculum drawn by educational institution itself Is there a curriculum that directs current teaching activities to the achievement of language teaching aims?higher authority institution developed plan – e.g. Ministry of Educationcurriculum drawn by educational institution itselfcoursebook is the curriculum
25 Where do teaching institutions stand? Can we all participate in a discussion?
26 CURRICULUM holds the overarching organising principles and goals as well as “all the aspects of the planning, implementation and evaluation of an educational program, the why, how and how well together with the what of the learning-teaching process.” (Richards and Renandya, 2002)Organisation of contentand order of what is to be taughtFrameworkCURRICULUMDirection towards achievement of aims
27 SURVEY Objective Rationale To look at how teachers in some countries regard the existence of a curriculum in their respective institutions that gives direction to their teaching activities.RationaleTo look at what is occurring at the onset of the language teaching-learning process in some institutions in some countries because some teachers feel there isn’t a curriculum at all.
28 Format of the survey Public institution Private institution Name of CountryPrivate institutionSituation Adeveloped its own curriculumbest available teachers were hiredcontinuous in-service trainingresources required for quality instruction were providedcoursebook was chosen according to the needs of the programme or written specifically for the programme.
29 Situation BMinistry of Education program for English or any other higher institutional programcoursebook is the immediate direction for teaching Englishlimited knowledge of development of curriculum or involvement of teachers in the processbest available teachers were hiredcontinuous in-service trainingresources were provided for quality instruction
30 Situation C coursebook is the only direction for teaching English limited resources for quality instruction and achieving the best results and success in language learningteachers have limited power to make changes.there is no continuous in-service training and teacher development.
31 Summary of respondents Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, England, Ethiopia, Greece, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan Spain, Sudan, Sultanate of Oman, Swaziland, Taiwan, Turkey and Zambia.50Private or Public institutionSituation ASituation BSituation CPublic3613176Private14752Total : 5020228
32 Can we all participate in a curriculum issue discussion? Respondents in Situation A added or took away more featuresteachers were not involved in the process of curriculum developmentstudents’ needs are not taken into considerationteachers do not have the power to make changeslack of teacher training, in service training does not respond to teachers´ needsteachers have to make up for lack of resourcescoursebooks imposed by a higher bodycoursebooks written for other contextsCan we all participate in acurriculum issue discussion?
34 Balance between Language and Teaching Skills Brazil, Colombia and Ethiopia
35 Can you help me?“I wish I could attend to a course or programme that would help me to develop my English language proficiency and my teaching skills at the same time. Unfortunately, most of the programmes focus on only one of the two areas.”Maria, English teacher in Amazonas, Brazil
39 Our concerns…None of those programmes focus on pre-service teachers. How can we offer similar opportunities to pre-service teachers?How can we sustain these programmes?What level of English should a practising teacher of English have?What can teachers of English do to improve their level of English in a FL environment?
41 English Language Teacher Development and INSET in Countries in Transition
42 The aim of this short presentation is: to confirm and raise awareness about the fact that INSET and teacher development is still a big challenge in many of the countries in transition (where ‘interestingly’, the situations are really similar)to stimulate discussion on the needs of teachers of English in these countries and actions that should be taken to provide the support needed
43 The Background:teachers have had very few opportunities to widen their experience and to keep themselves abreast of changes in ELTTeacher development is not a ‘serious’ priority in some countries and many other issues (socio-economic, cultural and political) affect teachers’ development
44 Absence of motivation and incentive for teachers Challenges and obstacles to teacher development have included the following:Lack of resourcesAbsence of motivation and incentive for teachersInadequate organisation and co-ordination of teacher training/development programmesInsufficient training sessionsLack of continuity
45 What are the ways in which we can make INSET/teacher development programmes more effective in countries in transition considering the contextual constraints?