6Types of assessmentFormativeSummativePunitiveSedative
7Assessment’s appeal to policymakers as an agent of reform… Tests and assessments are relatively inexpensive…Testing and assessment can be externally mandated…Testing and assessment changes can be rapidly implemented…Results are visible. Test results can be reported to the press… policymakers can reasonably expect increases in scores in the first few years of a program … with or without real improvement(Linn 1994)
8Testing’s effects on Policymakers PositiveNegativeHelp policymakers to judge the effectiveness of educational policiesImprove policymakers’ ability to monitor school system performanceFoster better allocation of state educational resourcesProvide misleading information that leads policymakers to suboptimum decisionsFoster a “blame the victims” spirit among policymakersEncourage a simplistic view of education and its goals(Stecher 2002)
9Getting the balance right Responsiveness to local needs and diversityPedagogical innovationProfessional discretion and educational leadershipIdeological neutralityPrimacy of curriculumPortability and buying powerCommunicating expectations and achievementMotivating excellenceIntellectual rigour and stretchAlignment of curriculum, assessment and reportingLess or lesscentralised testingMore or morecentralised testingMore testing?
10Evaluation and aspiration Evaluation and aspiration…when I went to school in Brisbane it was as if I had missed out on my primary education…I got straight As at Kowanyama but when I got to Brisbane I was getting Cs and Ds. …Education should be uplifting, not serve to reinforce lack of self-esteem and the heart wrenching low expectations that my mob suffer from. If we cannot get education right then we are doomed.– Tania Major, young Aboriginal leader,speaking to the Prime Minister 2003
11Evaluation and aspiration PISA: Aspirations and attainment correlate. Evaluation and aspiration(OECD average)PISA: Aspirations and attainment correlate.(De Bortoli & Cresswell 2004)
12The Pygmalion Effect We form certain expectations of people or events. We communicate those expectationswith various cues.People tend to respond to these cuesby adjusting their behaviour to match them.The result is that the original expectationbecomes true.This creates a circle of self-fulfilling prophecies.
131883 – Guess who? Winston Churchill 8th place out of 11 Composition: very variableGrammar: fairDiligence: …very naughty7th place out of 10French: not very goodWeak in geographyDrawing: very elementaryWinston Churchill
14Oh bring back higher standards – the pencil and the cane –if we want educationthen we must have some pain.Oh, bring us back all the gone days.Yes, bring back all the past…let’s put them all in rows again –so we can see who’s last.…let’s label all the good ones,we’ll call them ‘A’s and ‘B’s –and we’ll parcel up the useless onesand call them ‘C’s and ‘D’s.…We’ll even have an ‘E’ lot!…an ‘F’ or ‘G’ maybe!!…so they can know they’re useless…and not as good as me.(Peter Dixon)
15Unintended effectsAssessment systems that are useful monitors lose much of their dependability and credibility for that purpose when high stakes are attached to them.The unintended negative effects of the high-stakes accountability uses often outweigh the intended positive effects.(Linn 2001a)
16Spoon feeding in the long run teaches us nothing but the shape of the spoon. – E M Forster(Regurgitation in the long run teaches us nothing but the shape of the bucket.)
17The Bloom Taxonomy The reduction to knowledge Evaluation Synthesis of Educational Objectives(Cognitive Domain)SynthesisAnalysisApplicationThereductiontoknowledgeComprehensionKnowledge
19Hackney's schools worst again Schools in Hackney have been making progressHackney in London, whose education service is now being run by a trust, is at the bottom of the primary school results tables - again.Hackney is the worst-performing local education authority - although results in its schools did improve, from an average aggregate score of 197 to 210.
20Not everyone loves the King of the Sea… a 45 minute primary lesson on Flipper,shared reading of stories of Flipper,pictures and videos of Flipper,worksheets and art work on Flipper.wonderfully orchestrated… wonderfully socially supportive environment…At the end of lesson, what had the kids gained? Flipper.Now that’s what I mean by ‘dumbing down’of the curriculum.(Allan Luke 1999, 2001)
21The Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework (Years P–10 ) a defined essential curriculumcurriculum appropriate to local needsstandards of achievement in essential curriculumbank of assessment tools linked to essential curriculum and standardscomparable assessment against standards at three key pointscommon reporting frameworkongoing review and refinement of syllabuses