3 Concurrent Legislative List: Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 – Article 37-b“The State shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period”Concurrent Legislative List:Curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence, standard of education & Islamic education3
4 Millennium Development Goals (2001)1. Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality2. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality4
6 Literacy Rates47%67%Pakistan: 55%Male: 67%Female: 42%28%58%67%48%Literacy Definition(As in 1998 Census)42%58%“The ability of a person who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter in any language”55%22%67%42%6Sources: Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey
7 Educational Institutions by Level TotalPublicPrivatePre-primary1,081287794Mosque school14,12314,03588Primary122,349105,52616,823Middle38,44914,33424,115Secondary25,09010,55014,540British System28111270NFBE4,8312,0082,823Inter & Degree Colleges1,8821,025857Universities1165957Technical/ Professional1257426831Vocational3,0599162,143Deeni Madaris12,15335411,799Others3,1202,241879TOTAL227,791151,772(67%)76,019(33%)7Source: National Education Census 2006, GoP
8 Institutions by Medium of Instruction Type# of InstitutionsUrduEnglishSindhiOthersTotal227,791148065(65%)22779(10%)34168(15%)Public151,744103,186(68%)3,035(2%)33,384(22%)12,139(8%)Private76,04743,347(57%)21,293(28%)1,5219,886(13%)Source: National Education Census 2006, GoP8
9 Total schools upto Middle level 160,798PAKISTANMissing Facilities53,481(33%)46,766(29%)81,633(50%)9,776(6%)57,216(35%)No BoundaryWallNo DrinkingWaterNo ElectricityNo ToiletNo Building9Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006
10 EDUCATION BUDGET AS % AGE OF GDP (2005-06): SOUTH ASIA CountryPercentageIran4.7India3.8Bangladesh2.4Maldives7.5Nepal3.4Pakistan2.21 (05-06)2.44(07-08)Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report 200810
12 Challenges Weakened Governance Fragmentation Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier RelationshipsPoor Quality of Teachers & ManagersQuality of curriculum, textbooks & examsLow level of literacyOut of school childrenDropoutsPublic Private PartnershipIn-adequate financingGender EquityPoor monitoring & evaluationImbalance in primary, middle & secondary schoolsInconvenient school location12
13 Public/ Govt SchoolsThere is a huge difference amongst public schools in cities, small towns and villagesSome of the public schools in big cities are well resourced . At the same time in smaller towns and village areas some schools might not have basic facilities like desks, books, blackboards, electricity, doors, windows, toilets, drinking water, playgrounds, 60 per cent have no boundary walls and 16 percent are without a building.
14 Public/ Govt SchoolsSome of the major problems public schools face includelimited financial resourcespoor quality of content and a greater demand for education amongst parents of school-aged children.overcrowded and/or underfunded.These issues have largely fuelled the revival of private schools in Pakistan.
15 Private schools There is a huge variety of private schools in Pakistan Not all private schools are elite, some cater for middle class and some for the poorest of the population as wellPrivate schools have an advantage to add things to the curriculum ( things for students grooming that is not for assessment)Even the best private/ public schools teach 80% theory and 20 %activity based learning
16 In most schools teaching is for assessments so how much the child has learned is not what is the main concernMost schools promote rote learningMost schools teach obsolete concepts and methods of teaching that are not effective. There are only a handful of schools private and public where students are given good education
17 Student to teacher ratio in average private schools 30:1, state schools 50:1
19 According to UNESCO (2008)Over that period there was a significant growth of two thirds from around 12,000 in 1999 to 21,000 in 2005.These changes have been produced by a number of factors.The domestic provision of places by Pakistani universities is well below the demandThere is also a shortage of applied master’s courses in the country.An increasing proportion of the population is becoming more affluent, both within the country and among those living abroad, and they require access to overseas education for their childrenThere is pressure on students to obtain applied mater’s degree if they aim for employment in an increasingly competitive job market.(skill shortage summary here)