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Science AHSGE Standard II Objective 2- States of Matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Science AHSGE Standard II Objective 2- States of Matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science AHSGE Standard II Objective 2- States of Matter

2 Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space –Kinetic Molecular Theory: Matter is made of atoms which are in constant motion –Temperature- Average movement of particles (kinetic energy) –Change in temperature (motion of particles) = change in state of matter States of Matter: –Solids –Liquids –Gases –Plasma

3 Plasma 99% of known matter in universe- stars and other planets No definite shape; particles broken apart Ionized gas Appears to be solid Conducts electricity Affected by magnetic and electric fields

4 Solids Definite shape; does not take shape of container Definite volume; always same amount of space Atoms tightly packed together in rows Vibrate slowly back and forth in place Lowest kinetic energy

5 Characteristics of Solid Malleability- Ability to be hammered into thin sheets –Ex: Gold flattened into jewelry Elasticity- Ability to stretch and return to original position –Ex: Rubberband Brittleness- Ease with which it breaks –Ex: Glass is more brittle than steel Hardness- Ability to resist scratching –Ex: Diamond is harder than soap Tensile strength- Resistance to breaking under pressure –Concrete withstands hitting while paper may tear

6 Liquids Definite volume No definite shape; takes shape of container Molecules loosely packed together Particles able to slide past one another More kinetic energy than solids

7 Density and Floating Density = mass (g) Volume (ml) Solids tend to be more dense than liquids of the same substance; liquids more than gas In order for an object to float, its density must be less than the liquid it is in Example: Density of water = 1 g/ml –0.34 g/ml stick floats –2 g/ml stick sinks

8 Characteristics of Liquids Viscosity- Resistance of a liquid to flow (thickness) –Syrup is more viscous than water Surface tension- Tendency to form a skin on the surface when sitting still –Ponds develop and water bugs jump on Cohesion- Particles of the same substance sticking together –Water molecules stick together to flow Adhesion- Particles of different substances sticking together –Water molecules sticking to sides of glass graduated cylinder forming a meniscus

9 Gases No definite volume; completely fills all space available No definite shape; takes entire shape of closed container Particles repel each other; very far apart Most kinetic energy; fast movement Expands (increase in volume) when heated & vice versa

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