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1 Properties of Matter General Properties of Matter 2 Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Properties of Matter General Properties of Matter 2 Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 Properties of Matter

3 General Properties of Matter 2 Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter

4 What are properties? 3 Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness

5 I. SPECIFIC PROPERTIES – possessed only by a few types of matter 4 A. Physical Properties(there’s no change in the composition) Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture, hardness, sonorosity (sound), luster (shiny), solubility, porosity(can absorb), BP,MP,FP, Elasticity – ability of a material to be stretched.

6 Flexibility – ability of a material to be bent. 5

7 Malleability – ability of a material to be hammered into thin sheets 6

8 Ductility – ability of a material to be turned into a thin wire. 7

9 Hardness – ability of a material to be hardly broken. 8

10 Brittleness – ability of a matter to be easily broken. 9

11 Viscosity 10 The resistance of a liquid to flow The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily the greater the viscosity, the slower the liquid moves

12 Conductivity - materials ability to allow heat to flow. Ex. metal vs. wood

13 I. SPECIFIC PROPERTIES – possessed only by a few types of matter 12 B. Chemical Properties (there’s a change in the composition) Ex: combustibility (combustion/burning) oxidation decomposition

14 II. General Properties of matter 13 Possessed by all types of matter. Mass, weight, volume, density and Impenetrability

15 What is mass? 14 Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant. The metric unit for mass is grams (g) Kg, g, lbs Platform balance, weighing scale

16 Weight 15 The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object Weight changes with gravity The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)

17 Weight formula 16 1 kg = 2.2 pounds Weight is mass times acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) W= m x a What is your mass? What is your weight in Newtons?

18 What is gravity? 17 The force of attraction between objects is gravity All objects exert a gravitational force on each other

19 Question 18 Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?

20 Gravitational pull 19 The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force

21 What affects gravity? 20 The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance

22 Gravity 21 The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh

23 Question 22 Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?

24 Volume The amount of space taken up by an object. Regularly-shaped solid v= l x w x h Irregularly shaped solid – using displacement method Liquid – using a graduated cylinder/beaker 23

25 Density It is a measure of compactness of how much mass is tightly squeezed into a given volume. Is the ratio of mass and volume in an object. D= m/v g/ml or g/cm3 24

26 Density 25 The density of water is 1.0 g/ml Objects with densities greater than 1.0 g/ml will sink in water

27 Density 26 Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water

28 Ice 27 Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed

29 Astronomy fact! 28 The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!

30 Calculations 29 If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?

31 Calculation 30 If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3, what is the density of aluminum?

32 Calculation 31 If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ?

33 What is specific gravity? 32 A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity

34 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 33 Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion

35 Question 34 How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?

36 GAS LAWS 35

37 Gas laws 36 Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume

38 Charles Law 37 Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)

39 Charles’ Law 38 As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases Heating air causes it to expand

40 Question 39 How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?

41 Pressure 40 The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area

42 Boyle’s Law 41 Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)

43 Boyle’s law 42 If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure

44 Plasma 43 Plasma (phase) most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)

45 Question 44 What are the four phases of matter? Describe the plasma phase of matter.

46 Phase changes (video)(video) 45 Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation

47 What is a physical change? 46 Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties Type of matter remains the same

48 Questions 47 Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).

49 Physical changes 48 Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change

50 Melting video video 49 Phase change from a solid to a liquid

51 Melting point 50 Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid Physical property

52 Questions 51 How is melting different from freezing?

53 Phase changes (video)(video) 52 Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes

54 Vaporization 53 Phase change from a liquid to a gas

55 Boiling point (video)(video) 54 The temperature in which a liquid boils Point at which a liquid changes to a gas

56 Freezing (video)(video) 55 Phase change of a liquid to a solid The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point

57 Condensation 56 Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas

58 Question 57 Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.

59 Sublimation examples 58 Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation

60 Chemical properties 59 Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties Ex: flammability

61 Chemical changes 60 The change of a substance into a new and different substance Also known as a chemical reaction video

62 Questions 61 What is another name for a chemical change? Describe sublimation. How is a chemical change different from a physical change?

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