General Properties of Matter 2 Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter
What are properties? 3 Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness
I. SPECIFIC PROPERTIES – possessed only by a few types of matter 4 A. Physical Properties(there’s no change in the composition) Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture, hardness, sonorosity (sound), luster (shiny), solubility, porosity(can absorb), BP,MP,FP, Elasticity – ability of a material to be stretched.
Flexibility – ability of a material to be bent. 5
Malleability – ability of a material to be hammered into thin sheets 6
Ductility – ability of a material to be turned into a thin wire. 7
Hardness – ability of a material to be hardly broken. 8
Brittleness – ability of a matter to be easily broken. 9
Viscosity 10 The resistance of a liquid to flow The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily the greater the viscosity, the slower the liquid moves
Conductivity - materials ability to allow heat to flow. Ex. metal vs. wood
I. SPECIFIC PROPERTIES – possessed only by a few types of matter 12 B. Chemical Properties (there’s a change in the composition) Ex: combustibility (combustion/burning) oxidation decomposition
II. General Properties of matter 13 Possessed by all types of matter. Mass, weight, volume, density and Impenetrability
What is mass? 14 Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant. The metric unit for mass is grams (g) Kg, g, lbs Platform balance, weighing scale
Weight 15 The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object Weight changes with gravity The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
Weight formula 16 1 kg = 2.2 pounds Weight is mass times acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) W= m x a What is your mass? What is your weight in Newtons?
What is gravity? 17 The force of attraction between objects is gravity All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
Question 18 Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
Gravitational pull 19 The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
What affects gravity? 20 The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance
Gravity 21 The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
Question 22 Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
Volume The amount of space taken up by an object. Regularly-shaped solid v= l x w x h Irregularly shaped solid – using displacement method Liquid – using a graduated cylinder/beaker 23
Density It is a measure of compactness of how much mass is tightly squeezed into a given volume. Is the ratio of mass and volume in an object. D= m/v g/ml or g/cm3 24
Density 25 The density of water is 1.0 g/ml Objects with densities greater than 1.0 g/ml will sink in water
Density 26 Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
Ice 27 Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
Astronomy fact! 28 The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
Calculations 29 If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
Calculation 30 If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3, what is the density of aluminum?
Calculation 31 If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ?
What is specific gravity? 32 A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 33 Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
Question 34 How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?