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Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. IPv6 DNS Ashley Kitto Nominum, Inc.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 2 Outline 1. IPv6 Address Records 2. Operational Issues with Forward Lookups 3. Reverse IPv6 DNS
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 3 AAAA Historical Provides full 128 bits of address information in one record example.domain 3600 IN AAAA 4321:0:1:2:3:4:567:89ab
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 4 A6 New Style Define variable number of bits of address information Chain to other A6 records to provide the rest of the address, if they supply less than 128 bits.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 5 A6 Chain Example $ORIGIN x.example. host IN A6 64 ::1234:5678:9abc:def0 subnet-1.ip6 subnet-1 IN A6 48 0:0:0:1:: ip6 ip6 IN A6 48 0::0 subscriber-x.ip6.a.net. ip6 IN A6 48 0::0 subscriber-x.ip6.b.net. subscriber-x.ip6.a.net. IN A :2222:3333:: subscriber-x.ip6.b.net. IN A :8888:7777::
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 6 A6 Lookup Overview host.x.example. IN A6 64 ::1234:5678:9abc:def0 subnet- 1.ip6.x.example. subnet-1.ip6.x.example. IN A6 0:0:0:1:: ip6.x.example. => host.x.example. IN A6 48 ::1:1234:5678:9abc:def0 ip6.x.example. ip6.x.example. IN A6 48 0::0 subscriber-x.ip6.a.net. ip6.x.example. IN A6 48 0::0 subscriber-x.ip6.b.net. => host.x.example. IN A6 48 ::1:1234:5678:9abc:def0 subscriber- x.ip6.a.net. host.x.example. IN A6 48 ::1:1234:5678:9abc:def0 subscriber- x.ip6.b.net.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 7 A6 Lookup Overview (continued) subscriber-x.ip6.a.net. IN A :2222:3333:: subscriber-x.ip6.b.net. IN A :8888:7777:: => host.x.example. IN A :2222:3333:1:1234:5678:9abc:def0 host.x.example. IN A :8888:7777:1:1234:5678:9abc:def0
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 8 Outline 1. IPv6 Address Records 2. Operational Issues with Forward Lookups 3. Reverse IPv6 DNS
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 9 Resolvers Only make AAAA queries currently More complexity following A6 chains Bind 9 provides a way to synthesize AAAA records from A6 chains OR new resolver stub/resolver daemon protocol for communication between resolver stub and a daemon on the local machine that can follow A6 chains. Speak IPv6, put an IPv6 address record in nameserver line in resolv.conf
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 10 Lwres New protocol for secure communication between stub and resolving daemon No authentication currently, so should run on the local host Caches, and can optionally load zones in the same way as nameservers Can run as part of the nameserver process Will allow central configuration of searchlists for all clients using lwres server. Useful when authentication is added.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 11 Nameservers More work done by resolving nameservers Potentially many more queries following an A6 chain than looking up an A record Slower Limit A6 chain depth Two-record A6 chain suggested. Local 80 bits, and network 48 bits Include 128 bit A6 record as glue, for nameservers (where required)
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 12 Outline 1. IPv6 Address Records 2. Operational Issues with Forward Lookups 3. Reverse IPv6 DNS
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 13 Nibble Format Much the same as IPv4 DNS, but using nibbles (in hex) rather than bytes (in decimal) Matched AAAA records RFC defined the ip6.int domain to contain the nibble- format records Not flexible enough to work with A6, because of bit- level delegation. 0.f.e.d.c.b.a ip6.int.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 14 Bitstring labels Introduced to allow bit-level delegation of zones Considerably more complex Somewhat counterintuitive Obsoletes nibble-format reverse records RFC defined the ip6.arpa to contain the bitstring-format records In the transition period, new implementations first attempt to look up bitstrings in ip6.arpa, then try looking up nibbles in ip6.int Where not broken on a nibble boundary, labels are right-padded with zeroes Label order of the broken up address is reversed in the same way as IPv4 reverse addresses
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 15 Bitstring Example \[x abcdef0/64].\[x0001/16].\[x /45].\[x0/3].ip6.arpa \[x abcdef0/128].ip6.arpa These are the same number, the top example is broken at bits 3, 48, and 64; the bottom example is not broken up.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 16 DNAME Used to provide an alternate name to an entire tree, similar to the use of CNAME to provide an alternate name for a given node Is used in place of zone cuts and NS records Potentially quite useful in other cases, also Can maintain forward and reverse DNS in the same zone now.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 17 DNAME Example $ORIGIN ip6.backbone.net. \[x0/3].ip6.arpa. IN DNAME ip6.backbone.net. $ORIGIN ip6.backbone.net. \[x /45].ip6.arpa IN DNAME ip6.x.example. $ORIGIN ip6.x.example. \[x0001/16].ip6.x.example. IN DNAME subnet-1.ip6.x.example. \[x abcdef0].subnet-1.ip6.x.example. IN PTR host.x.example.
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 18 Bitstring Label Example abc def a b c d e f /0/ 0 \[x0/3] /000/ \[x /45]
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 19 Bitstring Label Example continued \[x0001/16] a b c d e f 0 \[x abcdef0/64] \[x abcdef0/64].\[x0001/16].\[x /45].\[x0/3].ip6.arpa
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 20 IPv6 Reverse Operational Issues DNAMEs cause a restart of the lookup They should be kept as short as practical Less control over this than A6 chains
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 21 IPv6 zone example nominum.com IN SOA ns1 postmaster ( ) IN NS ns1.nominum.com. ip6prefixIN A6 0 3ffe:1234:5678:: ns1IN A6 48 ::1:a:b:c:d ip6prefix www6IN A6 48 ::1:b:c:d:e ip6prefix ftp6IN A6 48 ::1:c:d:e:f ip6prefix eastIN NS ns1.east.nominum.com. ns1.eastIN A6 0 3ffe:1234:5678:2:1:2:3:4
Copyright © 2001 Nominum, Inc. 22 IPv6 zone example (contd) \[x a000b000c000d/80].ip6 IN PTR ns1 \[x b000c000d000e/80].ip6 IN PTR www6 \[x c000d000e000f/80].ip6 IN PTR ftp6 \[x0002/16].ip6 IN DNAME ip6.east
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