Ebone history capacities and volumes, logarithmic scale
GTS - The Backbone of the Internet in Europe Ebone IP Backbone 2.5 Gbps Sub 2.5 Gbps Backhaul Connection IP Node IP Node and IX presence European ISP Madrid Bilbao Barcelona Toulouse Bordeaux Marseille Lyon Turin Geneva Dublin Milan Budapest Bratislava Zurich Basel Strasbourg Munich Hamburg Amsterdam Warsaw Luxembourg Stuttgart Berlin Prague Copenhagen Gothenburg Oslo Vienna Dresden Frankfurt Nuremberg Stockholm Dusseldorf Hannover Moscow Brussels Lille Antwerp Rotterdam New York Cologne London Bracknell Paris Bucharest St Petersberg Pennsauken Valencia Heidelberg 12 x STM-1 6 x STM-1 Sprint GTE Sprint NAP
Borderless networks National telecom dominance has nearly disappeared (on the long haul routes) Competition and lower prices on the popular routes Less difference between national and international prices, if any
Bandwidth growth factors More users more time on the net higher demand on response time more web browsing new applications (e.g. digital photos) new devices on the net (e.g. mobile) streaming applications
Bandwidth growth factors last mile upgrades –cable, dsl, fixed wireless, MANs, fibre to the kerb/home
Backbone growth options Add parallel links upgrade from 2.5 to 10 Gbps finer mesh ?? add parallel links new technical developments
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