Presentation on theme: "The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 – 500 BCE."— Presentation transcript:
The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 – 500 BCE
COSMOPOLITAN MIDDLE EAST Hittites 1600 to 717 B.C.E. Upper Mesopotamia/ Anatolia Primarily a trading society Polytheistic- Hattia, Battle god Indo-European language family IRON, 1300 B.C.E.
Why Cosmopolitan? Relationship to Babylon Same religion- Gods and goddesses of Babylon and Sumer Changed Hammurabis law codes around- made them far less severe Also had city-states Hittites invade Babylon 1595 BCE Relationship to Egypt First peace treaty in the world, 1285 BCE Forged alliances with Egyptian Kings Traded a lot
New Kingdom Egypt BCE Overthrew Hyksos (Bronze) 4M people Bureaucracy that separated govt Akhenaton – monotheism Rameses II - expansion Aggressive Conquered by Kushites then Assyrians (Iron)
What factors led to Egypt losing its isolationist perspective in the Near East?
Aegean World Minoan Crete MINOANS: c B.C.E. (very approximate) to about 1450/1400 B.C.E. Europes first advanced civilization- CRETEEuropes first advanced civilization- CRETE Very advanced culture, peacefulVery advanced culture, peaceful Strong commercial ties (especially with Egypt and Sumer)Strong commercial ties (especially with Egypt and Sumer) Mycenaean Greece Migration to southern Greece c. 2,000 BCE of Indo-Europeans Lots of contact with Minoans- traded, adapted parts of their culture Attacked Crete (Knossus) c. 1,450 BCE Very prosperous
What are the similarities and differences between the rise of civilization in the Aegean Sea area with the rise of earlier world civilizations? What are the benefits and limitations of oral histories?
Assyrian Empire 911 to 612 BCE BIGGEST EMPIRE WEVE SEEN SO FAR Would DESTROY those who opposed them/take into slavery Transplant across empire BUT opportunities for conquered to rise within the military/government Military All powerful kings Libraries
Why have historians called the Assyrian Empire of the first millennium BCE the first true empire? How were the Assyrians able to conquer and control such a large and diverse empire? How should the Assyrian Empire be judged?
Israel Existence CONFIRMED by outside sources (Egyptian steles) in second millennium Pastoral nomads from Mesopotamia Monotheistic Many connections to other Middle Eastern civilizations Monarchs BCE- Saul, David, Solomon TEMPLE Role of prophets North kingdom conquered by 722 BCE Judea conquered 586 BCE
How reliable are religious documents as records of history? (Bible) What were the causes and consequences of the migrations of the people ultimately known as the Israelites?
BCE (Dominated trade) Present-day Lebanon Established the Phoenician Triangle Similar in many ways to Mesopotamia Carthage (monopoly/navy)
How would you describe the nature and extent of Phoenician expansion in the Mediterranean? What is meant by the description of Carthage as a commercial empire? Some civs still obviously very closely linked to rivers, but why are others not so directly centered on rivers?