Presentation on theme: "The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 – 500 BCE"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 – 500 BCE
2 COSMOPOLITAN MIDDLE EAST Hittites1600 to 717 B.C.E.Upper Mesopotamia/AnatoliaPrimarily a trading societyPolytheistic- Hattia, Battle godIndo-European language familyIRON, 1300 B.C.E.Iron metallurgy arises separately in Africa ~900 BCE
3 Why Cosmopolitan? Relationship to Babylon Same religion- Gods and goddesses of Babylon and SumerChanged Hammurabi’s law codes around- made them far less severeAlso had city-statesHittites invade Babylon 1595 BCERelationship to EgyptFirst peace treaty in the world, 1285 BCEForged alliances with Egyptian KingsTraded a lotVery tolerant of others religions (carried over to Assyrians)Allowed captured people to continue to worship their beliefs
4 New Kingdom Egypt 1532 - 1070 BCE Overthrew Hyksos (Bronze) 4M people Bureaucracy that separated gov’tAkhenaton – monotheismRameses II - expansionAggressiveConquered by Kushites then Assyrians (Iron)Separated into religion, court, military, treasury, conquered territoriesLots of trade during this period- need resources! Aswan means TRADE
5 What factors led to Egypt losing its isolationist perspective in the Near East?
7 Aegean World Mycenaean Greece Minoan CreteMINOANS: c B.C.E. (very approximate) to about 1450/1400 B.C.E.Europe’s first advanced civilization- CRETEVery advanced culture, peacefulStrong commercial ties (especially with Egypt and Sumer)Mycenaean GreeceMigration to southern Greece c. 2,000 BCE of Indo-EuropeansLots of contact with Minoans- traded, adapted parts of their cultureAttacked Crete (Knossus) c. 1,450 BCEVery prosperous
8 What are the similarities and differences between the rise of civilization in the Aegean Sea area with the rise of earlier world civilizations?What are the benefits and limitations of oral histories?
10 Assyrian Empire 911 to 612 BCE BIGGEST EMPIRE WE’VE SEEN SO FAR Would DESTROY those who opposed them/take into slaveryTransplant across empire BUT opportunities for conquered to rise within the military/governmentMilitaryAll powerful kingsLibraries
11 Why have historians called the Assyrian Empire of the first millennium BCE the first true empire? How were the Assyrians able to conquer and control such a large and diverse empire?How should the Assyrian Empire be judged?
13 IsraelExistence CONFIRMED by outside sources (Egyptian steles) in second millenniumPastoral nomads from MesopotamiaMonotheisticMany connections to other Middle Eastern civilizationsMonarchs BCE- Saul, David, SolomonTEMPLERole of prophetsNorth kingdom conquered by 722 BCEJudea conquered 586 BCE
14 How reliable are religious documents as records of history? (Bible) What were the causes and consequences of the migrations of the people ultimately known as the Israelites?
16 PHOENICIANS Rowers on two different levels Steering oars Square sails, only really good for going one way
17 PHOENICIANS 1200-800 BCE (Dominated trade) Present-day Lebanon Established the “Phoenician Triangle”Similar in many ways to MesopotamiaCarthage (monopoly/navy)Trade trade trade: Purple dye, glass, lumber, high-quality metal goods, pottery, art, textilesTraveled all over the place- esp. in search of raw materials, also because the assyrians were pushing them out of lebanonNot much literature, culture mostly destroyed by romans, but Alphabet- 22 lettersSame religion and political structure as in mesopotamia- also reformed cuneiformWe get bible from “paper coming from byblos”Founded carthage- huge city- 814 BCE- military superpower until rome destroys in the punic warsGot food from israel
18 How would you describe the nature and extent of Phoenician expansion in the Mediterranean? What is meant by the description of Carthage as a commercial “empire”?Some civs still obviously very closely linked to rivers, but why are others not so directly centered on rivers?