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Population Evolution Biology Chapter 16

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Presentation on theme: "Population Evolution Biology Chapter 16"— Presentation transcript:

1 Population Evolution Biology Chapter 16
Individuals within a population show variation in traits between themselves. Biology Chapter 16

2 Genetic Variation Populations always show variation in traits – no two individuals are EXACTLY the same Most genes have at least two alleles (some have many more). Lots of genetic “variation” is unseen. Variation is very common but not always “seen”. Variations are caused by two main sources: Mutations Gene shuffling during sexual reproduction

3 Gene Pools Gene pools consist of all genes (AND all alleles) within a population Gene frequency is the number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool EXAMPLE of gene pools - A homozygous black mouse has two alleles for black fur. A heterozygous black mouse has one allele for black fur and one allele for brown fur. A homozygous brown mouse has two alleles for brown fur. Gene Pool: Homozygous Black = Homozygous Brown = Heterozygous Black = BB bb Bb 12 Heterozygous Black Any change in allele frequency means that evolution (allele changes) is taking place How many total genes? How many total alleles? How many B alleles? How many b alleles? 25 50 20 30 4 Homozygous Black 9 Homozygous Brown Allele B frequency = 20/50 = 40% = 0.4 Allele b frequency = 30/50 = 60% = 0.6

4 Sources of Genetic Variation
Changes in allele frequency indicate that a change in the allele populations has occurred through evolution Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations ANY change in the DNA sequence due to mistakes, environmental sources (radiation, etc.) Can have no effect or drastic effects Gene shuffling as a result of sexual reproduction Crossing over during meiosis I Random contributions from mother & father Most genetic variation results in little or no observable changes in organisms

5 Trait distribution in populations
Polygenic traits Single-gene traits Polygenic = more than one gene influencing a trait. Know the difference between polygenic and single-gene trait graphs

6 Natural Selection effects on single- gene traits
CAN lead to allele frequency changes = evolution! What happened? Environmental changes allowed black lizards to be less conspicuous to predators than the previous environment. Therefore, red and light colored lizards stood out more and were more easily eaten by predators than black lizards causing a change in the allele frequency.

7 Natural Selection effects on polygenic traits
More complex than single-gene trait results Directional selection Disruptive selection Stabilizing selection These natural selection strategies occur as a result from a shift in the environmental conditions. Be able to identify the type of selection based on the graph

8 Directional Selection Example
BEFORE Industrial Revolution (and soot) AFTER Industrial Revolution (and soot)

9 Stabilizing Selection Example
Healthy birth weight leads to better survival rates

10 Disruptive Selection Example

11 Genetic Drift In a population, an allele can become more or less common solely due to chance = genetic “drift”. (Individuals can immigrate., emigrate, etc.) Greatest effect in small populations Founder Effect – Individuals leave a population to initiate a new population, or change another population

12 Genetic Equilibrium = Genetic Equilibrium
No change in allele frequency = genetic equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Principle = a mathematical way to quantitatively determine whether a population is showing evolution by studying allele frequencies The determination only works when there is no evolution (genetic equilibrium). Need to have these conditions: Random mating Very large population No immigration nor emigration No mutations No natural selection Can ALL of these conditions actually be met in nature? Is there ever genetic equilibrium in nature, or are there ALWAYS changes going on? = Genetic Equilibrium

13 Speciation The process of forming new species
If an allele mutation allows better “fitness” for a population, then that allele will become more common WHAT causes a species to form two (or more) new species? Isolating Mechanisms – causing “reproductive isolation” Behavioral Geographic Temporal (time)

14 Behavioral Isolation A form of reproductive isolation in which two populations that may be able to mate have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreeding

15 Geographic Isolation A form of reproductive isolation where two populations are separated by a geographical border – keeping them from interbreeding. Northern Spotted owl video Mexican Spotted owl video

16 Temporal Isolation A form of reproductive isolation in which the two species reproduce at different times of the day, season, or year. Wood and leopard frogs are an example of two similar species whose ranges overlap.

17 Darwin’s Finches Speciation Example
Gene pool changes Founders arrive Geographic isolation Speciation – the formation of new species – takes place over many years and is influenced by many factors. Eventually, changes in the gene pool happens as a result of the birds adapting to their local environment. If some birds from island B fly back to island A, they may have changed enough that they can no longer interbreed (reproductive isolation). If they both exist in island A, they will compete for local resources, perhaps causing further evolutionary changes. Be able to use the Galapagos finches example to describe how speciation works

18 Unanswered Questions How does evolution add information? Mutation explains how existing genetic information is changed, but it doesn't explain where new genetic information comes from. How can evolution be so quick? Millions of years can seem like a long time to the average person, but in terms of evolution, it's quite quick. Current evolutionary theory hasn't explained how a one-celled organism can evolve into an organism as complex as a human being in the time available in Earth's history. Where did the first living cell come from? In order for mutation and natural selection, processes essential to evolution, to operate, life must already exist. The current hypothesis is that life formed spontaneously from chemical reactions about 4 billion years ago, but is this really Possible? Do you have other questions?

19 What’s next? Click on “the Wild Future” to see an introduction of the series created by scientists about organisms of the future without humans.

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