216.1 Genes and VariationVariation and Gene PoolsGene pool – all genes in a population of organismsAllele frequency – the number of times the allele occurs in a gene poolIn genetic terms, evolution is any change in the frequency of alleles in a population.
3Gene Pool for Fur Color in Mice When scientists determine whether a population is evolving, they may look at the sum of the population’s alleles, or its gene pool. This diagram shows the gene pool for fur color in a population of mice.
4Sources of Genetic Variation MutationsAny change in a sequence of DNAGene ShufflingCrossing-overSexual reproductionRandom arrangement of chromosomes in Metaphase I of meiosis
5Single-Gene and Polygenic Traits Single Gene Traits – traits controlled by one gene that has two allelesExample: Widow’s Peak –AA or Aa - have widow’s peakaa - have no widow’s peak
6In humans, a single gene with two alleles controls whether a person has a widow’s peak (left) or does not have a widow’s peak (right). As a result, only two phenotypes are possible. The number of phenotypes a given trait has is determined by how many genes control the trait.
7Polygenic Traits – traits controlled by two or more genes Example: Height in humans
8Bell shaped curve is normal distribution The graph below shows the distribution of phenotypes that would be expected for a trait if many genes contributed to the trait.
10Natural selection can affect the distributions of phenotypes in three ways: Directional SelectionPhenotypes shift toward homozygous dominant or homozygous recessiveExample: Darwin’s FinchesThe finches had beaks of different sizes to eat different food. What if the supply of small seeds disappeared only leaving the large, hard seeds? Those finches with big beaks would survive causing a shift to that phenotype
11Small Medium Large Beak Size Directional selection occurs when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end. In this example, a population of seed-eating birds experiences directional selection when a food shortage causes the supply of small seeds to run low. The dotted line shows the original distribution of beak sizes. The solid line shows how the distribution of beak sizes would change as a result of selection.
12Stabilizing Selection When intermediate forms (heterozygote) of a trait are favored and alleles that specify extreme forms (homozygote) are eliminated from a populationExample: Darwin’s FinchesWhat if the supply of seeds was mostly medium size seeds?
13Small Medium Large Beak Size Number of Birds in Population Beak Size In this example of stabilizing selection, human babies born at an average mass are more likely to survive than babies born either much smaller or much larger than average.Small Medium LargeBeak Size
14Disruptive SelectionForms at both extremes of the range of variationExtremes are favored and the intermediate form is selected againstExample: Darwin’s FinchesWhat would happen if the supply of medium seeds disappeared?
15Example: Darwin’s finches What would happen if the supply of medium seeds disappeared?In this example of disruptive selection, average-sized seeds become less common, and larger and smaller seeds become more common. As a result, the bird population splits into two subgroups specializing in eating different-sized seeds.Small Medium LargeBeak Size
16Genetic DriftGenetic Drift – a random change in allele frequencies over the generationsGenetic drift has a greater effect on small populations.
17Founder EffectOccurs when allele frequencies in a group of migrating individuals are by chance not the same as that of their original population
18Example: beetlesTwo small groups of different beetles leave the population.
19These two small groups start their own population.
20The two new populations are genetically different from the original population. Population APopulation B
21In small populations, individuals that carry a particular allele may have more descendants than other individuals. Over time, a series of chance occurrences of this type can cause an allele to become more common in a population. This model demonstrates how two small groups from a large, diverse population could produce new populations that differ from the original group.
22BottleneckOccurs when the population undergoes a dramatic decrease in size.Causes:Natural catastrophesPredationDisease
23Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium 1908 Hardy and Weinberg independently suggested a scheme whereby evolution could be viewed as changes in the frequency of alleles in a population of organismsHardy-Weinberg – allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change.Genetic Equilibrium – When allele frequencies remain constant
245 conditions are required to maintain genetic equilibrium from generation to generation: There must be random matingPopulation must be very largeThere can be no movement of genes into or out of the populationNo mutationsNo natural selection – all genotypes must have an equal rate of survival and reproduction
2516.3 The Process of Speciation Natural selection and chance events can change the relative frequencies of alleles in a population and lead to speciation.Speciation – formation of a new speciesSpecies – a group of organisms that breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
26Isolating MechanismsAs new species evolve, populations become reproductively isolated from each other.When the members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring, reproductive isolation has occurred.
273 Types of Reproductive Isolation Behavioral IsolationOccurs when a species does not recognize another species as a mating partner because it does not perform the correct courtship rituals, display the proper visual signals, sing the correct mating songs or release the proper chemicals
282. Geographic IsolationOccurs when two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers or mountains.
293. Temporal IsolationOccurs when two species mate or flower during different seasons or at different times of the day
3017.4 Patterns of EvolutionMacroevolution – large-scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time.ExtinctionMore than 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinctWhat effects have mass extinctions had on the history of life? Mass extinctions have:Provided ecological opportunities for organisms that survivedResulted in bursts of evolution that produced many new species
31Divergent EvolutionTwo or more species that originate from a common ancestor.Adaptive radiation – a type of divergent evolution – the process by which a species evolves into several different speciesThe disappearance of dinosaurs then resulted in the adaptive radiation of mammals.