Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Population Genetics and Speciation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 16 Population Genetics and Speciation 16-1 Genetic Equilibrium
2 Terms to KnowPopulation genetics – study of evolution from a genetic point of viewMicroevolution – evolution at the genetic levelBell Curve – most members of the population have similar traits; only a few are at the extremesCan SHIFT over time!!!
4 Variations of Traits Within a Population Causes of VariationMutationsTAGATC -> TAAATCRecombination (crossing-over and independent assortment)(during meiosis – see pic!)Random pairing of gametesWhich sex cells combine successfully
5 The Gene PoolGene pool = the total genetic information available in a populationAllele Frequency = number of a certain allele / total number of alleles in a populationCalculated by … # of allele Atotal # of A and a
6 What is the allele frequency? Half a population of four o clocks are red/ half are white.What is the frequency of the r allele?0.50 or 50%
7 The Gene PoolPhenotype Frequency = # of individuals with a phenotype / total # of individuals within the population
8 The Gene PoolPhenotype Frequency = # of individuals with a phenotype / total # of individuals within the population# red flowers/ Total # of individuals
9 Hardy – Weinberg Genetic Equilibrium Ideal hypothetical population that is not evolving (ie not changing over time)5 criteria (must be met)No net mutations occurNo one enters or leaves the populationThe population is largeIndividuals mate randomlySelection does not occurWhy might a population never be in HW genetic equilibrium???
10 AssignmentPg 320 Q’s (1-5)Answer in complete sentences!Turn in when completed!Read pg’s and answer the Q’s given.
12 MutationGene flow – the process of genes moving from one population to the next- Immigration- Emigration3. Genetic Drift – allele frequencies in a population change usually because the population is small
13 4. Nonrandom mating – mate selection is influenced by geographic proximity, mates with similar traits, and sexual selection
14 - stabilizing selection - disruptive selection - directional selection 5. Natural Selection – some members are more likely to survive and reproduce- stabilizing selection- disruptive selection- directional selection
15 Types of SelectionStabilizing selection - individuals with average forms of a trait have the highest fitnessEx. Large lizards will be spotted by predators; small lizards can’t run fast enough to get away from predators
16 Types of SelectionDisruptive Selection – individuals with either extreme of the trait has the greatest fitnessEx. White moths on white trees cannot be seen; Dark moths on dark trees cannot be seen; medium colored moths will be seen on both trees (eaten by birds)
17 Types of SelectionDirectional selection – more extreme form of a trait has the greatest fitnessEx. Anteaters with the longest tongues will get the most food
20 The Concept of Species Speciation – the process of species formation Morphology – internal and external appearance of an organismSpecies – morphologically similar and can interbreed to produce fully fertile offspring
21 Morphological vs Biological Species Concept 2 competing concepts (ideas) on how to determine different speciesMorph = based solely on appearanceBio = based on who can reproduce with who successfully (not useful for extinct or asexual organisms)What do we use today?Mix of BOTH!!!
22 Isolation and Speciation Geographic isolation – physical separation of members of a speciesEx. River dries up into several small pools; fish diverged enough to be considered separate species
23 Reproductive Isolation – species become genetically isolated Ex. The offspring of interbreeding species may die early or may not be fertileEx. Different mating times
24 Rates of SpeciationGradualism – speciation occurs at a regular, gradual ratePunctuated Equilibrium – sudden, rapid change then long periods of no change