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Maritime Revolution Before 1450 - 1550.

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Presentation on theme: "Maritime Revolution Before 1450 - 1550."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maritime Revolution Before

2 Expansion before 1450 Pacific Ocean
Polynesians New Guinea to Hawaii to New Zealand Expansion or accidental? Malayo-Indonesians Madagascar

3 Expansion before 1450 Indian Ocean
Muslim Traders Very important by 1400 Trade ports not empire Ming Empire Mongol defeat leads to early expansionism Voyages of Zheng He Ways to show off wealth rather than trade Africa By 1433 voyages ended POWER VACUUM


5 Expansion before 1450 Atlantic Ocean
Vikings First major power Exploration and settlement Impact of changing climate in 1200 Europeans Applied Mediterranean knowledge Mostly Genoese and Portuguese Expeditionary - Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands Africans Mansa Musa Americas Limited Arawaks into Lesser Antilles

6 European Expansion 1400-1550 Who? Four Trends in Latin West since 1000
Iberian Kingdoms (Spain & Portugal) Economic, political & religious inspiration Improvements in their technology allowed them to “master” maritime push Four Trends in Latin West since 1000 Revival of urban life and trade European idea of alliance b/w rulers & merchants Struggle with Islamic Empires over Med. Growing intellectual curiosity Why not Italians? Venice & Genoa had pre-existing trade alliances with Muslims (access to SR through the Med.) Ships too small for Atlantic Ocean Merchant Princes supported trade in N Europe, Black Sea, Indian Ocean

7 Why Portugal? c. 1415 – attack on Morocco (Muslim) Importance of Gold
Part crusade, tournament, plundering Importance of Gold Unable to push inland Sought direct contact with Gold producers Need to sail Henry the Navigator Multiple agendas – religion, ottoman, exploration Cartography Caravel Smaller, lighter, more maneuverable, small cannons

8 Real Success comes after private investors become involved
Order of Christ Money Red crosses on ships Slavery and gold Cruzado Link between religion and exploration Real Success comes after private investors become involved Sao Tome Seek a passage to India

9 Why Spain? History of conflict with Muslims
Aragon & Castile unite to capture Granada Later entrance into Revolution Columbus Expedition sponsored by Queen Isabella Never believed he reached “New” World Vespucci Explores “new” world Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494 Negotiated by pope Splits Atlantic Ocean with imaginary line Americas = Spain Africa & S Asia = Portugal


11 African Encounters with Europe
Portugal Offered new markets for African goods Gold Coast & Benin Trade gold, pepper, some slavery African nations held power Kongo Only had slaves to offer Ethiopia Only Christian Empire on east coast Alliances against the Turks Conflict over version of Christianity

12 Indian Ocean Encounters with Europeans
Portugal Sought access to trade Crown decided that IO would belong to them alone – use of force Why did Portugal gain power so easily? (1505 – 1535) Superior weaponry and ships Small port cities, not empire Large empires not interested in maritime intrusion – internal focus Seized Malacca Methods of control Taxation Portuguese “passports” Execution Response Larger empires ignored or considered unimportant Smaller trade ports attempted resistance - failed

13 America Encounters with Europe
Spain Territorial Empire rather than trade No contact between Amerindians and others – had to rely on conquest & plunder Arawak Hispaniola (Haiti) 1493 – Columbus 2nd voyage with settlers 1495 rebellion: quashed, ended with death and bondage Famine and smallpox spread 1502 – all remaining Arawaks made slaves to colonists Conquistadors Defeat non-believers, bring them to god and get rich in the process

14 American Empires Cortes and Aztecs Pizarro and the Incans
Aztec empire only 100 yrs old Loyalty divided – “new” could offer more Tlaxcalans Moctezuma 1521 defeat – impact of smallpox Pizarro and the Incans Taxes, exile and forced labor used to control Civil war 1531 Pizarro sets out Pizarro betrays Atahualpa Internal conflict leads to splintering

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