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ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, 1 Spin Torque Transfer Technology S. James Allen UC Santa Barbara.

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Presentation on theme: "ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, 1 Spin Torque Transfer Technology S. James Allen UC Santa Barbara."— Presentation transcript:

1 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 1 Spin Torque Transfer Technology S. James Allen UC Santa Barbara Science Technology Spin Torque Transfer – RAM, STT-RAM Spin Torque Transfer Nano-oscillators Spin logic devices

2 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 2 Spin Torque Transfer Technology Mark RodwellUC Santa Barbara Bob BuhrmanCornell Stu WolfU. Virginia H. OhnoTohoku University Nick RizzoFree Scale Yiming HuaiGrandis Bill RippardNIST Steve RussekNIST Eli YablonovitchUC Berkeley Ajey JacobIntel With input from

3 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 3 Spin Torque Transfer Technology Science Technology Spin Torque Transfer – RAM, STT-RAM Spin Torque Transfer Nano-oscillators Spin logic devices From R. A. Buhrman, Spin Torque Effects in Magnetic Nanostructures, Spintech IV, 2007

4 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 4 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Heisenberg exchange Giant magneto resistance Spin transfer torque J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989).

5 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 5 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Heisenberg exchange Giant magneto resistance Spin transfer torque E f, 1-band J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Ferromagnet Non-magnetic

6 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 6 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Heisenberg exchange E f, 1-band J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Anti-ferromagnetic Ferromagnetic Ferromagnet

7 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 7 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Giant magneto resistance E f, 1-band J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). P = 1, ideal, perfect spin valve

8 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 8 H. Ohno, Spintronics Seminar, UCSB May, 2008

9 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 9 H. Ohno, Spintronics Seminar, UCSB May, 2008 P = 1, ideal, perfect spin valve

10 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 10 H. Ohno, Spintronics Seminar, UCSB May, 2008 P = 1, ideal, perfect spin valve Fixed SyF Free M. Hosomi, et al., A novel nonvolatile memory with spin torque transfer magnetization switching: spin-ram, Electron Devices Meeting,2005. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International, pp. 459-462.

11 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 11 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Spin transfer torque J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Free

12 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 12 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Spin transfer torque J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Fixed Free

13 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 13 Spin Torque Transfer: Science Spin transfer torque J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Fixed Free Precession Switching Damping

14 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 14 Spin Torque Transfer Technology Science Technology Spin Torque Transfer – RAM, STT-RAM Spin Torque Transfer Nano-oscillators Spin logic devices From R. A. Buhrman, Spin Torque Effects in Magnetic Nanostructures, Spintech IV, 2007

15 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 15 GMR and STT --- STT-RAM Spin transfer torque J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Fixed Free Precession Switching Damping

16 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 16 GMR and STT --- STT-RAM T. Kawahara, R. Takemura, K. Miura, J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, Y. Gotot, K. Ito, T. Meguro, F. Matskura, H. Takahash, H. Matsuoka and H. Ohno,2 Mb SPRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque RAM) with bit-by-bit bi-directional current write and parallelizing-direction current read, IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 43, 109 (2008). ~ 200 A

17 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 17 Conventional MRAM (toggle) and Spin Torque MRAM H field produces torque to reverse free layer. Spin polarized current produces torque to reverse free layer. Need I sw 40 mA/bit for 0.4 um x 1.0 um. I sw constant for smaller bits. I sw < 1 mA/bit for 0.06 m x 0.12 m bit. I sw reduces as bit scales smaller.

18 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 18 STT-RAM 2005 M. Hosomi, H. Yamagishi, T. Yamamoto, K. Bessho, Y. Higo, K. Yamane, H. Yamada, M. Shoji, H. Hachino, C. Fukumoto, H. Nagao, H. Kano, A novel nonvolatile memory with spin torque transfer magnetization switching: spin-ram, Electron Devices Meeting,2005. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International, pp. 459- 462., Fixed SyF Free

19 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 19 STT-RAM 2005 M. Hosomi, H. Yamagishi, T. Yamamoto, K. Bessho, Y. Higo, K. Yamane, H. Yamada, M. Shoji, H. Hachino, C. Fukumoto, H. Nagao, H. Kano, A novel nonvolatile memory with spin torque transfer magnetization switching: spin-ram, Electron Devices Meeting,2005. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International, pp. 459- 462., CMOS driver 100 100 nm S. Ikeda, J.Hayakawa, Y.M. Lee, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, T. Hanyu and H. Ohno, Magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic memories and beyond, IEEE Trans Elec. Dev. 54, 991 (2007).

20 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 20 STT-RAM 2005 M. Hosomi, H. Yamagishi, T. Yamamoto, K. Bessho, Y. Higo, K. Yamane, H. Yamada, M. Shoji, H. Hachino, C. Fukumoto, H. Nagao, H. Kano, A novel nonvolatile memory with spin torque transfer magnetization switching: spin-ram, Electron Devices Meeting,2005. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International, pp. 459- 462., CMOS sensing > 0.2 V S. Ikeda, J.Hayakawa, Y.M. Lee, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, T. Hanyu and H. Ohno, Magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic memories and beyond, IEEE Trans Elec. Dev. 54, 991 (2007). Read ~ 0.2 V < write!

21 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 21 STT-RAM 2005 M. Hosomi, H. Yamagishi, T. Yamamoto, K. Bessho, Y. Higo, K. Yamane, H. Yamada, M. Shoji, H. Hachino, C. Fukumoto, H. Nagao, H. Kano, A novel nonvolatile memory with spin torque transfer magnetization switching: spin-ram, Electron Devices Meeting,2005. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International, pp. 459- 462., S. Ikeda, J.Hayakawa, Y.M. Lee, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, T. Hanyu and H. Ohno, Magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic memories and beyond, IEEE Trans Elec. Dev. 54, 991 (2007). Sony 4 kb

22 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 22 STT-RAM 2007 S. Ikeda, J.Hayakawa, Y.M. Lee, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, T. Hanyu and H. Ohno, Magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic memories and beyond, IEEE Trans Elec. Dev. 54, 991 (2007). Y. Huai, Z. Diao, Y.Ding, A. Panchula, S. Wang, Z. Li, D. Apalkov, X. Luo, H. Nagai, A. Driskill-Smith, and E. Chen, Spin Transfer Torque RAM (STT- RAM) Technology, 2007 Inter. Conf. Solid State Devices and Materials, Tsukuba, 2007, pp. 742-743. STT-RAM cell with integrated CMOS transistor. The area of a single-level STT- RAM cell can be as small as 6 F 2. Grandis, Inc. Courtesy of Yiming Huai 115 x 180 nm 2

23 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 23 STT-RAM 2007 S. Ikeda, J.Hayakawa, Y.M. Lee, F. Matsukura, Y. Ohno, T. Hanyu and H. Ohno, Magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic memories and beyond, IEEE Trans Elec. Dev. 54, 991 (2007). Hitachi Courtesy of Hideo Ohno T. Kawahara, R. Takemura, K. Miura, J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, Y. Gotot, K. Ito, T. Meguro, F. Matskura, H. Takahash, H. Matsuoka and H. Ohno,2 Mb SPRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque RAM) with bit-by-bit bi-directional current write and parallelizing-direction current read, IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 43, 109 (2008).

24 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 24 GMR and STT --- STT-RAM T. Kawahara, R. Takemura, K. Miura, J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, Y. Gotot, K. Ito, T. Meguro, F. Matskura, H. Takahash, H. Matsuoka and H. Ohno, 2 Mb SPRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque RAM) with bit-by-bit bi-directional current write and parallelizing-direction current read, IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 43, 109 (2008).

25 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 25 STT-RAM Projections vs State-of-the-art A.Driskill-Smith, Y. Huai, STT-RAM – A New Spin on Universal Memory, Future Fab, 23, 28 Hitachi, 2007 Yes 1.6 x 1.6 m TMR 100 x 50 nm 2 (60) 40 ns 100 ns > 10 9 40 pJ/100ns None 1.8 V T. Kawahara, R. Takemura, K. Miura, J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, Y. Gotot, K. Ito, T. Meguro, F. Matskura, H. Takahash, H. Matsuoka and H. Ohno,2 Mb SPRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque RAM) with bit-by-bit bi-directional current write and parallelizing-direction current read, IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 43, 109 (2008).

26 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 26 STT-RAM Projections vs State-of-the-art Hitachi, 2007 Yes 1.6 x 1.6 m TMR 100 x 50 nm 2 (60) 40 ns 100 ns > 10 9 40 pJ T. Kawahara, R. Takemura, K. Miura, J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, Y. Gotot, K. Ito, T. Meguro, F. Matskura, H. Takahash, H. Matsuoka and H. Ohno,2 Mb SPRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque RAM) with bit-by-bit bi-directional current write and parallelizing-direction current read, IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 43, 109 (2008). Toggle MRAM (180 nm) Toggle MRAM (90 nm)* DRAM (90 nm)+ SRAM (90 nm)+ FLASH (90 nm)+ FLASH (32 nm)+ ST MRAM (90 nm)* ST MRAM (32 nm)* cell size ( m 2 ) 1.250.250.051.30.060.010.060.01 Read time35 ns10 ns 1.1 ns10 - 50 ns 10 ns1 ns Program time 5 ns 10 ns1.1 ns0.1-100 ms 10 ns1 ns Program energy/bit 150 pJ120 pJ 5 pJ Needs refresh 5 pJ30 – 120 nJ10 nJ0.4 pJ0.04 pJ Endurance> 10 15 > 10 15 read, > 10 6 write > 10 15 read, > 10 6 write > 10 15 Non- volatility YES NO YES * 90nm, 32nm MRAM values are projected + These values are from the ITRS roadmap Nick Rizzo, Freescale

27 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 27 Information Requested (2/2) Current state-of-the-art using the provided metrics as a guide (Appendix 2 of request for white papers) CMOS integrated STT-RAM demonstrated. 2Mb Key scientific and technological issues remaining to accept the technology for manufacture. Lower critical currents and larger TMR ratio. Quality of the tunnel junction is critical. Technology roadmap outlining a 5-15 year develop path leading to manufacture in 5-10 years. Replace MRAM. Embedded memory in logic applications. Longer term – universal memory. STT - RAM

28 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 28 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator Spin transfer torque J. C. Slonczewski, Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier, Phys. Rev. B, 39 6995 (1989). Fixed Free Precession Switching Damping

29 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 29 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator 30 nmPt 2 nm Cu/ 3 nm Co/ 10 nm Cu/ 40 nmCo/ 80 nm Cu/ S. I. Kiselev, J. C. Sankey, I. N. Krivorotov, N. C. Emley, R. J. Schoelkopf, R. A. Buhrman and D. C. Ralph, Microwave oscillations of a nanomagnet driven by a spin-polarized current, Nature, 425,380 (2003). ~ 0.1 nW measured 130 x 70 nm 2 H

30 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 30 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator 30 nmPt 2 nm Cu/ 3 nm Co/ 10 nm Cu/ 40 nmCo/ 80 nm Cu/ S. I. Kiselev, J. C. Sankey, I. N. Krivorotov, N. C. Emley, R. J. Schoelkopf, R. A. Buhrman and D. C. Ralph, Microwave oscillations of a nanomagnet driven by a spin-polarized current, Nature, 425,380 (2003). ~ 0.1 nW measured 130 x 70 nm 2 H Key element: A skew magnetic field !

31 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 31 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator 30 nmPt 2 nm Cu/ 3 nm Co/ 10 nm Cu/ 40 nmCo/ 80 nm Cu/ ~ 0.1 nW measured ~ 0.2 nW estimated max. 130 x 70 nm 2 H

32 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 32 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator: Injection Locking 1 nm Au 1 nm Cu/ 5 nm NiFe/ 4 nm Cu/ 20 nm CoFe/ 50 nmCu/ 5 nm Ta/ W. H. Rippard, M. R. Pufall, S. Kaka, T. J. Silva, S. E. Russek, J. A. Katine, Injection Locking and Phase Control of Spin Transfer Nano-oscillators, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 067203 (2005). 50 x 50 nm 2 0.56 Tesla ~ 30 pW

33 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 33 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator: Frequency Modulation M. R. Pufall, W. H. Rippard, S. Kaka, T. J. Silva, and S. E. Russek Frequency modulation of spin-transfer oscillators Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 082506 (2005). ~ 250 pW

34 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 34 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator: Phase Locking S. Kaka, M.R. Pufall, W.H. Rippard, T.J. Silva, S.E. Russek and J.A. Katine, Mutual phase-locking of microwave spin torque nano- oscillators Nature, 437, 389 (2005). ~ 2 pW

35 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 35 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator: B=0.0 T. Devoldera, A. Meftah, K. Ito, J. A. Katine, P. Crozat and C. Chappert, Spin transfer oscillators emitting microwave in zero applied magnetic field, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063916 2007. Free Fixed layer < 1.0 pW

36 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 36 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator: Power issues? Some measures: Cell phone – 900 MHz, 1.8GHz, ~ 500 mW Wireless access points – 2.4 GHz, 5.0 GHz, ~ 25 mW Automotive radar 24 GHz, 100 GHz ~ 10 mW State of the art STT nano-oscillators External magnetic field, ~ nW, efficiency 10 -6

37 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 37 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator 30 nmPt 2 nm Cu/ 3 nm Co/ 10 nm Cu/ 40 nmCo/ 80 nm Cu/ MgO tunnel barrier ~ 1 W estimated

38 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 38 Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillator: Power issues? Some measures: Cell phone – 900 MHz, 1.8GHz, ~ 500 mW Wireless access points – 2.4 GHz, 5.0 GHz, ~ 25 mW Automotive radar 24 GHz, 100 GHz ~ 10 mW State of the art STT nano-oscillators External magnetic field, ~ nW, efficiency ~ 10 -6 Projection MTJ based STT nano-oscillators~ W, efficiency ~ 10 -2 ? Power combining ? But touch base with the Cornell, NIST, UVa collaboration

39 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 39 Information Requested (2/2) Current state-of-the-art using the provided metrics as a guide (Appendix 2 of request for white papers) Nano-oscillators at the nano-picowatt level with spin valve structures, in external magnetic fields. Existence proof of approach to external magnetic field free sustained oscillation. Phase locking, frequency modulation, injection locking demonstrated. Key scientific and technological issues remaining to accept the technology for manufacture. Increased power. Use of magnetic tunnel junctions. Power combining. Technology roadmap outlining a 5-15 year develop path leading to manufacture in 5-10 years. Needs to be guided by potential applications. STT Nano-oscillators

40 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 40 MRAM --- Spin Logic Device Mark Rodwell, UC Santa Barbara Eli Yablonovitch, UC Berkeley source drain I transpinnor Ikeda et. al., Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 44, No 48, pp. L1442-L1445 Current controlled Non-volatile Leaky switch,

41 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 41 Two views - Spin Logic 5μA output5μA input 500Ω or 2.275kΩ or 500Ω +V +3mV -V -3mV Output Power = 1.6*10 -8 W Total Power = 2.5*10 -8 W Efficiency=65% Problems: On/Off ratio is only about 5:1 Still takes too many Amps to switch Eli Yablonovitch Complementary Transpinnor logic Mark Rodwell Three state circuits memory and logic clocked logic 0 static dissipation Inverter I input I output I ss I input I output

42 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 42 MRAM --- Spin Logic Device Mark Rodwell, UC Santa Barbara Eli Yablonovitch, UC Berkeley source drain I transpinnor Ikeda et. al., Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 44, No 48, pp. L1442-L1445 Current controlled Non-volatile Leaky switch,

43 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 43 GMR and STT --- Spin Logic Device? Mark Rodwell, UC Santa Barbara Eli Yablonovitch, UC Berkeley source drain I transpinnor Can we control GMR by Magnetostatically coupling to a STT switch ??

44 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 44 GMR and STT --- Spin Logic Device? Can we control GMR by Magnetostatically coupling to a STT switch ?? O. Ozatay,a_ N. C. Emley, P. M. Braganca, A. G. F. Garcia, G. D. Fuchs, I. N. Krivorotov,R. A. Buhrman, and D. C. Ralph, Spin transfer by nonuniform current injection into a nanomagnet, Appl. Phys. Lett., 88, 202502 (2006).

45 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 45 GMR and STT --- Spin Logic Device? I SS Input Output Current driven Clocked logic Inherent memory, I SS 0, no change in input of next stage M. Rodwell Inverter

46 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 46 GMR and STT --- Spin Logic Device? M. Rodwell NAND Current controlled Clocked logic 3-state, nonvolatile Cell 100F 2 Energy per bit ~ 4* STT-RAM Switching speed slower than STT-RAM

47 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 47 Information Requested (2/2) Current state-of-the-art using the provided metrics as a guide (Appendix 2 of request for white papers) Straw man concepts, synergistic with STT-RAM developments Key scientific and technological issues remaining to accept the technology for manufacture. Demonstration of magneto-static proximity coupling of GMR device and STT switch Technology roadmap outlining a 5-15 year develop path leading to manufacture in 5-10 years. Premature GMR-STT Spin logic devices

48 ITRS Emerging Technology Review, 12 July 2008 Contact: SJ Allen, allen@iqcd.ucsb.edu 48 Spin Torque Transfer Technology A perspective: STT-RAM will be developed for memory embedded in logic applications. STT Nano-oscillators development needs to guided by potential application. Research on potential STT Logic will be leveraged by developments in STT-RAM


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