Economic Overview South Africa has the most sophisticated free-market economy on the African continent. The country represents only 3% of the continent's surface area, yet it accounts for approximately 40% of all industrial output, 25% of gross domestic product (GDP), over half of generated electricity and 45% of mineral production in Africa. Due to its history, South Africa has one of the most unequal societies in the world with a sophisticated industrial economy that has developed alongside an underdeveloped "informal" economy. This dual economy presents a development challenge for South Africa.
National and Local Development Strategies Reconstruction and Development Plan Anti-poverty Programme –Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy e.g. Land reform and food security) –Urban Renewal Programme (e.g. Infrastructure development and service delivery) Integrated Development Plan (local municipal level) which has integrated the ISRDP and the URP –All environmental policies (NEMA, Water Act, Air quality, Disaster Management Act etc.) are all implemented in this context.
National Climate Change Responses In response to the climate change predictions: the 1 st National Communications has been submitted to the UNFCCC and preparations for the 2 nd are underway; There is also intensive climate change research which is mainly aimed at improving climate forecasts and predicting impacts within the ff sectors: water, agriculture, biodiversity and health The key vulnerability sectors outlined in the National Communications have been expanded by the National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) launched in 2004. This strategy has provided a comprehensive framework for dealing with climate change issues in South Africa. –Within this strategy, principles outlined to guide South Africas response to climate change include consistency with national priorities and strategies on sustainable development.
Current Policy Initiatives Department of Agriculture: Currently developing a climate change response strategy; Department of Water Affairs and Forestry is developing a climate change response strategy Some local authorities are developing climate change adaptation plans and strategies as part of the Integrated Development Plans at local levels
Learnings at policy levels Key national and local developmental programmes have focused mostly on the provision of infrastructure for basic services in both rural and urban areas of South Africa. The integration of climate change, as part of service delivery using the current developmental strategies is crucial, Bottom up solutions and opportunities for the integration of climate change risk management at the household level still need to be prioritised.
Current Practices at local levels SSN is currently developing a methodology for identifying community based adaptation to climate change project activities, Community based projects in the water sector (both urban and rural) and agricultural sector have been identified and underdevelopment phase.
SSN Practices at local levels Main aims of the SSN programme To develop and apply a generic methodology for identifying, designing and implementing Community Based Adaptation (CBA) Projects; Establish partnerships with various stakeholders who include: –non-governmental organizations and community based organizations; –Research institutions (focus on climate change science) willing to communicate their work and learn with other stakeholders involved; –Local authorities; –Other specialists Develop robust methodologies to evaluate and monitor overall project development processes
Driving key concepts for Community based adaptation initiatives Climate Change Vulnerability and Climate Change Adaptation to Climate Change Adaptive Capacity and Sustainable livelihoods Poverty and Poverty Alleviation (Development Strategies) Sustainable Community Based Projects
Poverty and Climate change: Top down approach Step I: Mapping the Climate Change Vulnerable Region/Area and Sector –UNFCCC –IPCC Third Assessment Report –Regional Level Impact Assessment Report –Country Level Impact, vulnerability and adaptation Assessment Report Experience: Information Available-interpretation& applicability of this info difficult….. Step II: Mapping Poverty at national, sub-national, socio-economic and occupational group (existing country level data set, census etc.) Experience: Information available-lack of strong linkages between poverty issues and environmental ….. Step III: Overlaying Climate Change and Poverty (locate poverty hot- spot in relation with CC)
Poverty and climate change: Top down continued Step V: Select Potential Project Partners: subjective Step VI: Reconnaissance survey and information gathering –Who is doing what: Institutional mapping? –Who knows what? –What information is available? –Conceptualization of possible CBA Projects through Project Identification notes (PINs) to outline potential project activities: the wish list…… Step VII: Analysis of Data and Information Gathered –Verification of the institutional mapping –Verification of proposed PINs with existing institutions within the community
Poverty and Climate Change: The Bottom Approach Step viii: Project Design (lengthy process) –Formation of Project design Team –Vulnerability assessment exercise in the context sustainable livelihood framework analysis: Understand local perceptions of vulnerability Range of key vulnerabilities facing the target community Range of climate related vulnerabilities (i.e. climate change science/extreme weather/climate variability) Identify existing coping & adaptation strategies What adaptive capacity is needed by who, with what and when? Reconcile short-term needs with long-term goals Role of various institutions: analyse = Prioritize key potential project activities/interventions based on Steps vi-viii Step ix: Formulation of project design document for fundraising purposes-targeting dedicated adaptation funding
Learnings so far A need to define an adaptation to climate change project? Additionality (Is it about financial feasibility/incremental costs, what are they? A need for the interpretation of climate change science at local levels: creation of symbiotic relationships A need to understand institutional arrangements and processes at local levels A need for practitioners to assess- how to integrate adaptation to climate change issues into urban issues: focus on integrated demand management A need to identify and design projects in line with current SD policy developments A need to allow and capacitate development agencies at local levels to drive adaptation to climate change initiatives;
Thank you Lwandle@southsouthnorth.org www.southsouthnorth.org www.clacc.net