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Ecology. Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology. Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology

2 Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment

3 What is the Biosphere? The portion of the earth in which all living things exist Only about 20Km of total diameter of earth From ocean floor to about 8Km above earths surface

4 Two types of factors in Biosphere Biotic: all things living –Examples? Abiotic: all things non-living –Examples?

5 Many subcategories Population: all individuals of a certain species within a certain area Community: all the populations of different species within an area

6 Many subcategories Ecosystem: includes a community and its physical environment –Includes both biotic and abiotic


8 Individuals have a habitat and a niche Habitat: where an individual organism lives; its home – where is yours? Niche: the role that organism plays in its ecosystem –What is yours?

9 Relationships between organisms Competition: if two individuals occupy the same niche they will compete –Limited resources like? –Only one will win

10 Relationships between organisms Symbiosis: two organisms living in close association –Three types: mutualism, commensalism and parasitism

11 Relationships between organisms Mutualism: both species benefit Example? Why?

12 Commensalism: one benefits; the other is neither hurt nor helped Relationships between organisms

13 Parasitism: one species benefits at the other’s expense Relationships between organisms

14 All organisms require Energy As one organism eats another energy moves through ecosystem Forms food chain Many food chains make food web

15 Energy Pyramid

16 Producers/Autotrophs: make food from sunlight or other inorganic molecules – examples: plants, algae and bacteria

17 Energy Pyramid Primary consumers: eat producers –Herbivores –Examples: rabbits, plankton

18 Energy Pyramid Secondary or High order consumers: eat primary consumers carnivores –Larger animals –Top consumers are not eaten by anyone

19 Where do they go then ? Decomposers: bacteria; break down dead organisms and return nutrients (nitrogen) back to the soil for producers to use

20 Food Chain

21 Food Web

22 Mother Nature Recycles All essential inorganic nutrients cycle between biotic and abiotic parts of ecosystem - Water - Oxygen - Carbon - Phosphorus - Nitrogen

23 Water Cycle

24 Organisms give off water Water evaporates into atmosphere Water condenses in cloud Falls back to earth in rain/snow Taken back in by Organisms

25 Carbon cycle

26 Nitrogen Cycle

27 Phosphorous Cycle

28 Oxygen Cycle

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