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Published byTheodore Richards
Modified over 5 years ago
Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment
What is the Biosphere? The portion of the earth in which all living things exist Only about 20Km of total diameter of earth From ocean floor to about 8Km above earths surface
Two types of factors in Biosphere Biotic: all things living –Examples? Abiotic: all things non-living –Examples?
Many subcategories Population: all individuals of a certain species within a certain area Community: all the populations of different species within an area
Many subcategories Ecosystem: includes a community and its physical environment –Includes both biotic and abiotic
Individuals have a habitat and a niche Habitat: where an individual organism lives; its home – where is yours? Niche: the role that organism plays in its ecosystem –What is yours?
Relationships between organisms Competition: if two individuals occupy the same niche they will compete –Limited resources like? –Only one will win
Relationships between organisms Symbiosis: two organisms living in close association –Three types: mutualism, commensalism and parasitism
Relationships between organisms Mutualism: both species benefit Example? Why?
Commensalism: one benefits; the other is neither hurt nor helped Relationships between organisms
Parasitism: one species benefits at the other’s expense Relationships between organisms
All organisms require Energy As one organism eats another energy moves through ecosystem Forms food chain Many food chains make food web
Producers/Autotrophs: make food from sunlight or other inorganic molecules – examples: plants, algae and bacteria
Energy Pyramid Primary consumers: eat producers –Herbivores –Examples: rabbits, plankton
Energy Pyramid Secondary or High order consumers: eat primary consumers carnivores –Larger animals –Top consumers are not eaten by anyone
Where do they go then ? Decomposers: bacteria; break down dead organisms and return nutrients (nitrogen) back to the soil for producers to use
Mother Nature Recycles All essential inorganic nutrients cycle between biotic and abiotic parts of ecosystem - Water - Oxygen - Carbon - Phosphorus - Nitrogen
Organisms give off water Water evaporates into atmosphere Water condenses in cloud Falls back to earth in rain/snow Taken back in by Organisms
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