Presentation on theme: "Enhancing Professional Development of Education Practitioners and Teaching/Learning practices Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 17-18 November 2006 Prospects."— Presentation transcript:
Enhancing Professional Development of Education Practitioners and Teaching/Learning practices Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 17-18 November 2006 Prospects of Teacher Education – Regional Overview Pavel Zgaga University of Ljubljana
1.0 The Prospects of Teacher Education in South-east Europe CEPS in co-operation with partners in South-east Europe just finished a research project which could offer some food for thought in todays discussions on teacher education at institutional, national and international levels. Results of the project (financed by OSI, SDC, Unesco) are now published in a book entitled The Prospects of Teacher Education in South-east Europe. The project aimed to develop an exhaustive study on how the systems of pre-service and in-service teacher education work in practice: - which plans for the (near) future have been developed at faculties, and - what acting teachers in schools think about the existing provision and what their real needs are in this area.
2.0 The Project In preparing the theoretical bases and methodological guidelines, the core project group relied on the outcomes of the most recent discussions at the European level. A special website has been developed with multilingual background documents in a virtual library and links. Institutions of teacher education and acting teachers from 12 countries were included in a survey. Their answers to two questionnaires provide a colourful picture of the state of affaires in teacher education and qualifications, open a variety of comparisons – and demand improvements on the national, institutional and school level. Our seminar is the first promotion of this book and aims at discussing these issues in a international group teachers and education practitioners.
3.0 Questionnaire A vs. B Questionnaire A was sent to institutions of TEd while Questionnaire B was sent to acting teachers. 131 institutions of TEd (colleges and faculties as well as specialized in-service institutions) from 11 countries (Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro Romania, Slovenia and Serbia) responded to the Q-A. 2290 acting teachers and other education practitioners from 12 countries (here, teachers from Austria joined the survey) responded the Q-B. The project group (12 national teams) produced 12 reports of national systems of pre-service and in-service TEd; they also reflected responses to both questionnaires from national point of view. However, these results are very interesting again if observed from regional point of view.
4.0 Questionnaire A: responding institutions at a glance A 2.1 Profile Faculty or department within a university = 57.0% Non-university college= 6.1% Institution of in-service teacher education = 36.8% A 2.2 Mission Teacher education an exclusive activity = 40.2% Teacher education a predominant activity = 52.1% Teacher education an additional activity = 7.7% A 2.4 Pre-service and in-service Both, pre-service and in-service = 45.5% Pre-service exclusively = 15.4% In-service exclusively = 38.2%
4.1 Q-A:institutions at a glance – ctd. A 2.7 Graduate TEd studies Providing Masters level study in TEd= 37.4% Providing Masters level study in TEd= 26.7% Providing initial Ted for non-Ted graduates= 42.0% No graduate courses = 20.6% A 2.6 Cooperation between faculties and schools - focused to school-based teaching of students = 49.6% - opportunities for practical placement of students = 33.6% - employment opportunities for graduates = 13.7% - promoting in-service offer to acting teachers = 50.4% - schools are a place for our research work = 45.0% - no cooperation = 2.3%
4.2 Results / Q-A A 2.7 Graduate TEd studies Providing Masters level study in TEd= 37.4% Providing Masters level study in TEd= 26.7% Providing initial Ted for non-Ted graduates= 42.0% No graduate courses = 20.6% A 2.6 Cooperation between faculties and schools - focused to school-based teaching of students = 49.6% - opportunities for practical placement of students = 33.6% - employment opportunities for graduates = 13.7% - promoting in-service offer to acting teachers = 50.4% - schools are a place for our research work = 45.0% - no cooperation = 2.3%
4.1 Q-A:institutions at a glance – ctd. Questionnaire A consists of introductory and two core parts – (3) pre-service and (4) in-service. In the continuation, we focus only to findings in the area in-service teacher education.
A 4.1 What is your opinion about the system of in-service education in your country? ff%(Q-B) It is relatively good as it is; no major changes are needed.10.8(7.6) The in-service provision should be broadened with new topics and financially supported. 3428.8(37.1) The in-service provision should be substantially increased and supported from public sources. 5143.2(33.3) There is no effective system; it is most urgent to establish it.2823.7(18.7) No opinion43.4(3.3)
A 4.8 What are the most frequently offered contents and topics in in-service teacher education? (Respondents had five choices and ranked options on a scale from 1 – most frequent – to 5). 2.02methods of teaching/learning/assessment 2.17particular teaching subjects 2.67development of skills for using ICT 2.80intercultural education, education for human rights 2.87school/educational management 3.04learning (mastering) a foreign language 3.17educational work with children with special needs 3.22co-operation with parents, the school environment etc. 3.32social and cultural aspects of education, ethics etc. 3.32development of general communication skills, rhetoric etc.
A 4.6 What are your main aims in developing new in-service teacher education provision? (multiple choice) ff% To deepen and renew the subject-specific knowledge of teachers.3929.8 To deepen and renew the educational knowledge of teachers.6348.1 To enhance the practical competencies of teachers.7557.3 To support teachers implementing new curricula and using new teaching methods.7658.0 We are not developing new provision yet. 107.6
A 4.7 Do your involve teachers and other stakeholders in the restructuring of the provision? (multiple choice) ff% Yes, we consult teachers about their needs in in-service education.7960.3 Yes, we consult headmasters, administrators etc.5642.7 Yes, we consult the Ministry of Education. 6045.8 Yes, we consult professional associations. 4332.8 No, we dont involve them. 1410.7
A 4.9 Do you find it feasible and important for professional development of teachers to include them in the research projects? ff% Yes; it could enhance an individual teachers professional development. 3025.9 Yes; it could enhance cooperation with schools, help transfer of knowledge and strengthen innovation. 5950.9 Yes; due to a lack of research resources it could give better possibilities for research at our institution. 1512.9 We havent considered this issue yet.97.8 No, this is not their job; they are not qualified for research. 32.6
5.0 Questionnaire B - an average respondent (acting teacher) B 1.1 The group: 2290 respondents from 12 countries B 1.2 Working position: 49.6% Primary & lower secondary schools 26.5% Upper secondary schools B 1.3 Working age: 11-20 years = 30.7% and 21-30 years 27.7% B 1.4 Gender: 79.7% female vs. 20.3% male 1.5 Level of Education: Higher education (1st cycle)= 53.3% Short higher education = 24.0%
B 2.11 What is your opinion about the system of pre-service education in your country? TMINMAX It is relatively good as it is; no major changes are needed. 7.72.8 AL 18.3 MK It is not so bad but study programmes should put more stress on subject contents. 17.05.4 HR 47.0 AT It is not so bad but study programmes should put more stress on education. 28.021.3 BH 40.0 AT It is not so bad but study programmes should put more stress on practice. 24.96.0 AT 32.7 MO It should be radically reformed.19.20.5 AT 34.5 RO
B 2.1 I find my pre-service educationTMINMAX - adequate and corresponding to the demands of my work. 34.95.6 AT 53.0 MO - adequate to start working but much further education is needed. 55.942.4 MO 87.4 AT - non-adequate; my work is based on experiences and in-service training. 8.11.8 BU 16.9 HR - non-adequate; I have no appropriate formal education. 0.90.0 7 countries 5.3 KO - non-adequate; I havent finish my studies yet. 0.20.0 7 countries 1.4 SI
B 2.8 Would you take a new/higher (Bologna) degree? TMINMAX Yes, Bachelor studies in another teaching subject. 15.83.0 BU 33.3 KO Yes, Bachelor studies but outside teaching. 5.60.5 AT 14.0 MO Yes, Master studies in my or another teaching subject. 29.48.4 AT 56.9 BH Yes, Master studies but outside teaching. 2.40.0 SR 6.7 BU No, I would prefer more in-service education and training. 23.211.1 MK 37.4 SI No, I am quite satisfied with my degree. 13.20.0 MK 63.1 AT
B 2.12 What is your opinion about the system of in-service education in your country? TMINMAX It is relatively good as it is; no major changes are needed. 7.61.5 HR 25.9 SI The in-service provision should be broadened with new topics and financially supported. 37.120.0 MN 64.2 AT The in-service provision should be substantially increased and supported from public sources. 33.326.6 SI 43.3 HR There is no effective system; it is most urgent to establish it. 18.70.5 AT 37.8 BH No opinion3.30.0 AT 9.0 MT
B 2.2 How many in-service seminars have you attended during the last year? TMINMAX - more than 10 seminars9.21.9 AT 18.0 KO - 6 to 10 seminars12.22.7 MN 28.4 HR - 3 to 5 seminars34.260.9 AT 9.4 MN - 1 to 2 seminars32.747.6 BU 15.2 HR - none11.62.0 HR 42.3 MN
B 2.7 How often have you found your favourite contents/topics? TMINMAX Always5.90.0 AT 13.8 MO Often; in most cases52.937.2 MN 73.4 MO Sometimes; in rare cases33.212.0 MO 53.9 HR Never1.60.0 AT, SI 4.2 KO There is no such offer in my environment3.50.0 AT, SI 19.0 KO
B 2.6.2 Most important in-service contents/topics (average mark) TMINMAX - concerning my teaching subject4.153.63 BH 4.52 MK - methods of teaching, learning and assessment 4.213.72 SR 4.54 HR - cooperation with parents3.663.28 AL 4.24 HR - ICT in education3.832.82 AL 4.34 HR - children with special needs3.482.74 RO 4.42 HR - intercultural education, human rights3.533.05 RO 3.99 AT
B 2.4 Who organised these seminars? (multiple answers) TMINMAX - Ministry of Education (and/or its branch institutions/offices) 65.538.9 BU 81.5 KO - specialised public institutions for in-service teacher education 28.19.1 MK 51.7 AL - specialised private institutions for in-service teacher education 4.80,0 BH 10.8 KO - university; higher education institutions15.03.3 MN 27.1 RO - non-governmental institutions specialised for in-service t. education 25.63.7 AT 64.6 KO - our school; school network33.32.0 MN 81.1 AT
B 2.6.1 Average mark of particular forms of in-service teacher education TMINMAX - Ministry of Education (and/or its branch institutions/offices), specialised public institutions 3.923.20 BH 4.32 MK - university; higher education institutions 3.753.19 BH 4.56 BU - our school3.352.61 RO 3.89 HR - specialised private institutions for in- service teacher education 2.882.41 BU 3.16 AT - non-governmental institutions specialised for in-service t. education 3.342.76 BU 4.00 AL - individual study of professional literature 3.642.65 MK 4.20 HR
B 2.9 Would you be willing to work with students coming to your school to get teaching practice? TMINMAX Yes, I find important to transfer my experience to younger colleagues. 56.527.4 AT 77.3 SR Yes, I would appreciate a student to help / assist me in my work. 17.47.5 HR, SI 48.4 AT Yes, if this work gives possibilities for promotion or if it is paid. 15.63.1 SR 27.9 MO Yes, but only if school leadership required me to work with students. 5.30.0 SR 11.5 HR No, this is not my job.5.21.5 MO 13.7 BU
4. A view to the future: recommendations 1. The ongoing Bologna reforms have also brought important challenges to the subject area of teacher education. It is extremely important to support the systemic exchange of information on the present status of designing new curricula in teacher education at cross-border, regional and pan-European levels. 2. Governments should look at teacher education not as expenditure but as investment with a high return: quality education for all at lower stages of education builds pillars for efficient vocational training and tertiary education as well as guarantees a knowledge society as an inclusive society. 3. The enhancing of systems of teacher education demands the setting-up of quality assurance mechanisms as approved in the Bergen communiqué. Teacher education needs trustful accreditation procedures, effective systems of licensing and high professional standards of pre-service as well as in-service programmes.
4.1 Recommendations – ctd. 4. According to the Bologna guidelines, teacher education curricula should be based on learning outcomes. This means that specific education in scientific knowledge and skills should always be combined with subject-specific knowledge and skills and incorporated in the curricula in line with the European documents. 5. In particular, all students in the teacher education study area should be enabled to do regular – e.g. weekly – teaching practice, integrated into the curriculum as a common standard. The new generation of curricula in teacher education should ensure more pedagogical knowledge and skills. 6. Consecutive and parallel systems of teacher education should be treated as equal if they are based on appropriate learning outcomes. Systemic possibilities should be developed and supported to allow students to transfer credit points from previous study programmes and for non-formal education.
4.2 Recommendations – ctd. 7. The new European Higher Education Framework of Qualifications provides the area of teacher education systemic with possibilities that the initial study programmes of future teachers as well as the further study of acting teachers can be delivered in all three cycles, including doctoral studies. 8. Pre-school teacher education should be considered as an integral part of the pre-service teacher education system. The ongoing Bologna reforms should make it possible for the 2nd and 3rd cycles to also be open to pre-school teacher education. 9. In decision-making processes regarding teacher education it is particularly important to take the perspective of practicing teachers into account. 10. Quality TEd in a lifelong perspective demands the initiation of better co-operation between (pre-service) higher education institutions, specialised in-service institutions and schools.
4.3 Recommendations – ctd. 11. Pre-service and in-service institutions of teacher education should involve acting teachers and school practitioners in general in designing new teacher education programmes. 12. Today, teacher education worldwide is an integral part of higher education and therefore institutions should enhance the synergy of higher education and research in the specialised fields of teaching, learning and assessment etc. 13. Institutions of pre-service and in-service teacher education from the region should develop broad international co-operation to build capacities in the field of education sciences. Thank you!