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Introduction to Mythology Sheltered English I Mrs. Biggs and Mrs. Garcia Spring, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Mythology Sheltered English I Mrs. Biggs and Mrs. Garcia Spring, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Mythology Sheltered English I Mrs. Biggs and Mrs. Garcia Spring, 2011

2 What is Mythology? The body of stories associated with a culture, institution, or person. The body of stories associated with a culture, institution, or person. Stories concerning the origin of the people, history, deities, ancestors and heroes. Stories concerning the origin of the people, history, deities, ancestors and heroes. Stories of forgotten or vague origin, basically religious or supernatural in nature, which seeks to explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the world or a society Stories of forgotten or vague origin, basically religious or supernatural in nature, which seeks to explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the world or a society

3 Gods and Goddesses of Early Civilizations

4 The Aztec Gods and Goddesses Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. Religion They worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses - They worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses - –each ruled one or more human activities or aspects of nature –many agricultural gods They believed that the balance of the natural world, the processes that make life possible - like the rain or solar energy - and that the destiny of people depended on the will of these gods. They believed that the balance of the natural world, the processes that make life possible - like the rain or solar energy - and that the destiny of people depended on the will of these gods.

5 Tenochtitlan One of the main cultural centers for the Aztec civilization. One of the main cultural centers for the Aztec civilization. All religious ceremonies were directed on the main temples. All religious ceremonies were directed on the main temples.

6 The Creator Gods Huitzilopochtli Huitzilopochtli Tezcatlipoca Tezcatlipoca Quetzalcoatl Quetzalcoatl Tlaloc Tlaloc

7 Huitzilopochtli Also called the Hummingbird Wizard Also called the Hummingbird Wizard War and Sun God War and Sun God Main God of the Aztecs Main God of the Aztecs Conquered warriors were sacrificed to him yearly. As many as 20,000 a year may have been killed. Conquered warriors were sacrificed to him yearly. As many as 20,000 a year may have been killed.

8 Tezcatlipoca Also called Smoking Mirror Also called Smoking Mirror God of Night and all material things. God of Night and all material things.

9 Quetzalcoatl The Plumed Serpent The Plumed Serpent The god of civilization, priesthood and learning. The god of civilization, priesthood and learning. om/watch?v=V9age8 gGR5A om/watch?v=V9age8 gGR5A om/watch?v=V9age8 gGR5A om/watch?v=V9age8 gGR5A

10 Tlaloc The Rain God The Rain God Children were drowned as sacrifices to him. Children were drowned as sacrifices to him. Main agricultural god. Main agricultural god.

11 The Mayan Gods and Godesses The ancient Mayans had a complex pantheon of deities whom they worshipped and offered human sacrifices. The ancient Mayans had a complex pantheon of deities whom they worshipped and offered human sacrifices. Rulers were believed to be descendants of the gods and their blood was the ideal sacrifice Rulers were believed to be descendants of the gods and their blood was the ideal sacrifice 117 gods and goddesses are documented for the Mayan culture - myth-gods.htm 117 gods and goddesses are documented for the Mayan culture - myth-gods.htm myth-gods.htm myth-gods.htm

12 Tikal 60-square-mile site holds numerous pyramids, shrines, and ball courts, where Mayans played a sometimes dangerous version of soccer, reportedly using human skulls as balls 60-square-mile site holds numerous pyramids, shrines, and ball courts, where Mayans played a sometimes dangerous version of soccer, reportedly using human skulls as balls

13 Itzamná Creator of the world Creator of the world The alligator god The alligator god He symbolizes this universe He symbolizes this universe Presides over the divine society Presides over the divine society God of medicine, earth and fire God of medicine, earth and fire Inventor of writing and books Inventor of writing and books Sends rain down to Earth Sends rain down to Earth Four gods in one Four gods in one

14 Ixchel Itzamna's companion Itzamna's companion Goddess of the Moon, fertility, medicine, weaving, rainbows, songs and childbirth. Goddess of the Moon, fertility, medicine, weaving, rainbows, songs and childbirth. Also watches over bodies of water - "Lady of the Sea" Also watches over bodies of water - "Lady of the Sea"

15 Resources

16 Greek and Roman Mythology A Review of The Principal Gods and Goddesses

17 What is a myth? A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events Explains the cultures view of the universe and the nature of humanity Explains the cultures view of the universe and the nature of humanity

18 The Principal Gods Cronos and Rhea were parents of Cronos and Rhea were parents of –Zeus (Jupiter, Jove) –Poseidon (Neptune) –Hades (Pluto) –Hera (Juno) –Hestia (Vesta) –Demeter (Ceres) Other Olympians include Other Olympians include –Athena (Minerva) –Ares (Mars) –Hebe (Juventas) –Hephaestus (Vulcan) –Apollo (Apollo) –Artemis (Diana) –Hermes (Mercury) –Aphrodite (Venus) –Dionysus (Bacchus) –Persephone

19 The Olympians

20 Zeus Roman Name: Jupiter (also Jove) Roman Name: Jupiter (also Jove) Supreme god of the Olympians. Supreme god of the Olympians. Fathered many characters in mythology Fathered many characters in mythology

21 Zeus

22 Hera Roman Name: Juno Roman Name: Juno Zeuss sister and wife Zeuss sister and wife Jealous protector of marriage Jealous protector of marriage Punished the women Zeus fell in love with Punished the women Zeus fell in love with

23 Poseidon Roman Name: Neptune Roman Name: Neptune God of the Seas and Waters God of the Seas and Waters The Earthshaker The Earthshaker

24 Hades Roman Name: Pluto Roman Name: Pluto God of the Underworld/ Dead God of the Underworld/ Dead Kidnapped Persephone Kidnapped Persephone

25 Hestia Roman Name: Vesta Roman Name: Vesta Goddess of Home Goddess of Home Powerful Protector Powerful Protector

26 Demeter Roman Name: Ceres Roman Name: Ceres Goddess of the Harvest Goddess of the Harvest A Goddess of the Earth A Goddess of the Earth

27 Athena Roman Name: Minerva Roman Name: Minerva Goddess of Wisdom and War Goddess of Wisdom and War Sprang from Zeuss head Sprang from Zeuss head

28 Ares Roman Name: Mars Roman Name: Mars God of War God of War Son of Zeus and Hera Son of Zeus and Hera Bloodthirsty and merciless Bloodthirsty and merciless

29 Hephaestus Roman Name: Vulcan (Mulciber) Roman Name: Vulcan (Mulciber) God of Fire/Forge God of Fire/Forge Son of Zeus and Hera Son of Zeus and Hera Kind, unlike his brother Kind, unlike his brother

30 Apollo Roman Name: Apollo Roman Name: Apollo God of Light/Sun and Music God of Light/Sun and Music Brother of Artemis Brother of Artemis

31 Artemis Roman Name: Diana Roman Name: Diana Goddess of the Moon/ Hunt Goddess of the Moon/ Hunt Sister to Apollo Sister to Apollo

32 Hermes Roman Name: Mercury Roman Name: Mercury Messenger of the Gods Messenger of the Gods Appears in more myths than any other character Appears in more myths than any other character

33 Aphrodite Roman Name: Venus Roman Name: Venus Goddess of Love and Beauty Goddess of Love and Beauty Sprang from the ocean foam Sprang from the ocean foam

34 Dionysus Roman Name: Bacchus Roman Name: Bacchus God of Wine God of Wine Patron god of the Greek stage Patron god of the Greek stage A God of the Earth A God of the Earth

35 Persephone Roman Name: Proserpina Roman Name: Proserpina Goddess of the Underworld Goddess of the Underworld Daughter of Zeus and Demeter Daughter of Zeus and Demeter Abducted by Hades Abducted by Hades

36 Eros Roman Name: Cupid Roman Name: Cupid Young God of Love Young God of Love Son of Aphrodite and Hephaestus Son of Aphrodite and Hephaestus

37 Iris Goddess of the Rainbow Goddess of the Rainbow Messenger for Zeus and Hera Messenger for Zeus and Hera Daughter of the titan Thaumus and the nymph Electra Daughter of the titan Thaumus and the nymph Electra

38 The Muses Nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne Nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne Inspired artists of all kinds Inspired artists of all kinds Goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences Goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences He is happy whom the muses love. He is happy whom the muses love. Clio, Urania, Thalia, Melpomene, Erato, Calliope, Euterpe, Terpsichore, Polyhymnia

39 The Graces Three Goddesses of Grace and Beauty Three Goddesses of Grace and Beauty They give life its bloom. They give life its bloom. Aglaia (Splendor) Aglaia (Splendor) Euphrosyne (Mirth) Euphrosyne (Mirth) Thalia (Good Cheer) Thalia (Good Cheer)

40 The Erinnyes (The Furies) Roman Name: Furiae or Dirae (The Furies) Roman Name: Furiae or Dirae (The Furies) Three Goddesses of Vengeance Three Goddesses of Vengeance –Tisiphone –Alecto –Megaera They punish evildoers. They punish evildoers.

41 The Fates Roman Name: Parcae, Moirae Roman Name: Parcae, Moirae Three sisters Three sisters –Clotho (The Spinner) –Lachesis (The disposer of lots) –Atropos (The cutter) They weave, measure, and cut the thread of life for humans. They weave, measure, and cut the thread of life for humans.

42 The Satyrs Gods of the woods and mountains Gods of the woods and mountains Shepherd gods Shepherd gods Goat men (like Pan) Goat men (like Pan) Companions of Dionysus Companions of Dionysus They like to drink, dance, and chase nymphs. They like to drink, dance, and chase nymphs.

43 The Gorgons Three snake- haired monsters Three snake- haired monsters Medusa is most well-known Medusa is most well-known Their look turns men to stone. Their look turns men to stone.

44 The Centaurs Half man, half horse Half man, half horse Savage creatures (except Chiron) Savage creatures (except Chiron) Followers of Dionysus Followers of Dionysus

45 Sources Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites: Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites: –http://www.bulfinch.org/fables/search.html –http://www.pantheon.org/ –http://www.messagenet.com/myths/ –http://mythman.com/ –http://web.uvic.ca/grs/bowman/myth/index.html –http://www.paleothea.com/ –http://www.entrenet.com/%7Egroedmed/greekm/myth.html This presentation is for educational purposes only; it has not been and should not be sold or used as a vehicle to make money. This presentation is for educational purposes only; it has not been and should not be sold or used as a vehicle to make money.


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