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Greek and Roman Mythology A Review of the Principal Gods and Goddesses.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek and Roman Mythology A Review of the Principal Gods and Goddesses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek and Roman Mythology A Review of the Principal Gods and Goddesses

2 What is a myth? A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events Explains the culture’s view of the universe and the nature of humanity

3 In the beginning... …was Chaos (shapeless nothingness) Chaos had two children: Night (darkness) Erebus (death) “All was black, empty, silent, endless.” Mysteriously, Love was born of darkness and death.

4 And then... When Love was born, order and beauty began to flourish. Love created Light and Day. Earth was created. She was the solid ground, but also a personality. The Earth bore Heaven to cover her and be a home for the gods.

5 The First Parents Mother Earth = Gaea (Gaia) Father Heaven = Ouranos (Uranus) They had three kinds of children: Three monsters with 100 hands and 50 heads Three cyclopes The titans These were the first characters that had the appearance of life, although it was unlike any life known to man.

6 The Titans (The Elder Gods) There were many of them. Enormous size, incredible strength Cronos (Saturn): Ruler of the titans Rhea: Wife of Cronos Ocean: River that encircled the world Iapetus: Father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Atlas (also titans)

7 The Principal Gods Cronos and Rhea were parents of Zeus (Jupiter, Jove) Poseidon (Neptune) Hades (Pluto) Hera (Juno) Hestia (Vesta) Demeter (Ceres) Other Olympians include Athena (Minerva) Ares (Mars) Hebe (Juventas) Hephaestus (Vulcan) Apollo (Apollo) Artemis (Diana) Hermes (Mercury) Aphrodite (Venus) Dionysus (Bacchus) Persephone

8 The Olympians

9 Zeus Roman Name: Jupiter Supreme god of the Olympians. Fathered many characters in mythology God of Sky and Storms Symbols: Eagle and Thunderbolt

10 Zeus

11 Hera Roman Name: Juno Zeus’s sister and wife Jealous protector of marriage Punished the women Zeus fell in love with Symbols Peacock, cow and crow

12 Poseido n Roman Name: Neptune God of the Seas and Waters “The Earthshaker” Symbols: Dolphin, horse, trident

13 Hades Roman Name: Pluto God of the Underworld/ Dead Kidnapped Persephone Cape of invisibility given to him by the Cyclopes

14 Hestia Roman Name: Vesta Goddess of Home Powerful Protector Got tired of the petty intrigue on Olympus Gave up her spot to Dionysus

15 Demete r Roman Name: Ceres Goddess of the Harvest A Goddess of the Earth Symbols: Sheaf of wheat, torch

16 Athen a Roman Name: Minerva Goddess of Wisdom and War Sprang from Zeus’s head Symbol: Owl

17 Ares Roman Name: Mars God of War Son of Zeus and Hera Bloodthirsty and merciless Symbols: Vulture, Dog

18 Hephaes tus Roman Name: Vulcan (Mulciber) God of Fire/Forge Son of Zeus and Hera Kind, unlike his brother Only ugly God Symbols: Donkey, hammer, anvil

19 Apollo Roman Name: Apollo God of Light/Sun and Music Twin brother of Artemis Symbols: Laurel tree, bow, raven, lyre

20 Artemis Roman Name: Diana Goddess of the Moon/ Hunt Twin sister to Apollo Symbols: Deer, hunting dog

21 Hermes Roman Name: Mercury Messenger of the Gods Appears in more myths than any other character Symbols: Caduceus (staff twined with snakes), wings

22 Aphrodi te Roman Name: Venus Goddess of Love and Beauty Sprang from the ocean foam Symbols: Dove, apple, seashell

23 Dionys us Roman Name: Bacchus God of Wine Patron god of the Greek stage A God of the Earth Symbols: Vines, ivy

24 Perseph one Roman Name: Proserpina Goddess of the Underworld Daughter of Zeus and Demeter Abducted by Hades

25 Hebe Roman Name: Juventas Goddess of Youth Cupbearer to the Gods Restored youth to the aged Married Heracles

26 Eros Roman Name: Cupid Young God of Love Son of Aphrodite and Hephaestus

27 Iris Goddess of the Rainbow Messenger for Zeus and Hera Daughter of the titan Thaumus and the nymph Electra

28 The Muses Nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne Inspired artists of all kinds Goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences “He is happy whom the muses love.” Clio, Urania, Thalia, Melpomene, Erato, Calliope, Euterpe, Terpsichore, Polyhymnia

29 The Graces Three Goddesses of Grace and Beauty “They give life its bloom.” Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome Aglaia (Splendor) Euphrosyne (Mirth) Thalia (Good Cheer) Their presence was the assurance of peace and happiness

30 The Erinnyes (The Furies) Roman Name: Furiae or Dirae (The Furies) Three Goddesses of Vengeance Tisiphone Alecto Megaera They punish evildoers. Assisted the Underworld Gruesome looking

31 The Fates Roman Name: Parcae, Moirae Three sisters Clotho (“The Spinner”) Lachesis (the measurer “The disposer of lots”) Atropos (“The cutter”) They weave, measure, and cut the thread of life for humans. Decide man’s destiny Predate the Gods

32 The Satyrs Gods of the woods and mountains “Shepherd gods” Goat men (like Pan) Companions of Dionysus They like to drink, dance, and chase nymphs.

33 The Gorgons Three snake-haired monsters Medusa is most well- known Their look turns men to stone.

34 The Centaurs Half man, half horse Savage creatures (except Chiron) Followers of Dionysus

35 Sources Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites: This presentation is for educational purposes only; it has not been and should not be sold or used as a vehicle to make money.


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