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Melissa Biggs 2010 The Odyssey Epic Poem by Homer.

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1 Melissa Biggs 2010 The Odyssey Epic Poem by Homer

2 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Adventures of Odysseus Summary The Odyssey opens with the Invocation to the Muse. Homer speaks in 1 st person pov asking Calliope (muse of epic poetry) to aid him in the telling of the story. The Odyssey opens with the Invocation to the Muse. Homer speaks in 1 st person pov asking Calliope (muse of epic poetry) to aid him in the telling of the story. Invocation sums up the action and acts as a teaser keeping the audience in suspense. Invocation sums up the action and acts as a teaser keeping the audience in suspense.

3 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Adventures of Odysseus Devices and Figurative Language man skilled in all ways of contending - epithet for Odysseus (l.2) man skilled in all ways of contending - epithet for Odysseus (l.2) the wanderer – epithet for Odysseus (l.3) the wanderer – epithet for Odysseus (l.3)

4 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: Sailing from Troy Summary Odysseus held captive by Calypso and Circe but longed for his wife, Penelope, in his heart. Odysseus held captive by Calypso and Circe but longed for his wife, Penelope, in his heart. Left Troy, landed on the shores of the Ciconians. Ravaged city and rested. Left Troy, landed on the shores of the Ciconians. Ravaged city and rested. Meanwhile, survivors gathered forces and stormed the beach on horseback. Meanwhile, survivors gathered forces and stormed the beach on horseback. Odysseus lost many men. Odysseus lost many men.

5 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: Sailing from Troy Devices and Figurative Language Change in point of view from 1 st person of Homer to 1 st person of Odysseus. Change in point of view from 1 st person of Homer to 1 st person of Odysseus. Laertes son – epithet for Odysseus (l.18) Laertes son – epithet for Odysseus (l.18) loveliest among goddesses – epithet for Calypso (l.30) loveliest among goddesses – epithet for Calypso (l.30) the enchantress – epithet for Circe (l.32) the enchantress – epithet for Circe (l.32)

6 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: Sailing from Troy Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) They came with dawn over that terrain like the leaves and blades of spring. – simile comparing leaves and grass to the soldiers of Ciconians (ll.53-55) They came with dawn over that terrain like the leaves and blades of spring. – simile comparing leaves and grass to the soldiers of Ciconians (ll.53-55)

7 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Lotus Eaters Summary Storm is sent by Zeus. Sail for nine days. Storm is sent by Zeus. Sail for nine days. Land on shore and send three men to check out everything. They dont return. Land on shore and send three men to check out everything. They dont return. Odysseus finds them among the Lotus Eaters, a peaceful people that eat lotus and dream all day. Odysseus finds them among the Lotus Eaters, a peaceful people that eat lotus and dream all day. He must drag them back to the ship and tie them down. They have forgotten about home. He must drag them back to the ship and tie them down. They have forgotten about home.

8 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Lotus Eaters Devices and Figurative Language lord of the cloud – epithet for Zeus (l.70) lord of the cloud – epithet for Zeus (l.70) …driving veils of squall moved down like night on land and sea. – simile comparing the storm to night (ll.71-72) …driving veils of squall moved down like night on land and sea. – simile comparing the storm to night (ll.71-72) Dawn with ringlet shining… – personification of Sun (l.39) Dawn with ringlet shining… – personification of Sun (l.39) honeyed plant – epithet for Lotus (l.97) honeyed plant – epithet for Lotus (l.97) Symbol: Lotus is like addictive drugs Symbol: Lotus is like addictive drugs

9 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Summary Odysseus and 12 men go to the cave because of Odysseus curiosity. Odysseus and 12 men go to the cave because of Odysseus curiosity. Polyphemus traps them in the cave and eats 2 of his men. Odysseus prays to Athena; finds an olive tree and makes it into a spear. Polyphemus traps them in the cave and eats 2 of his men. Odysseus prays to Athena; finds an olive tree and makes it into a spear. Upon his return, Odysseus gives him wine. Upon his return, Odysseus gives him wine. Says name is Nobody. They stab out his eye. Other Cyclopes do not help. Polyphemus screams,Nobodys hurt me! Says name is Nobody. They stab out his eye. Other Cyclopes do not help. Polyphemus screams,Nobodys hurt me!

10 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Summary (cont.) Opens the cave, tries to capture men escaping. Opens the cave, tries to capture men escaping. Odysseus has tied men beneath sheep. He rides on the belly of the prize ram. Odysseus has tied men beneath sheep. He rides on the belly of the prize ram. Polyphemus talks to ram and threatens Odysseus life. Polyphemus talks to ram and threatens Odysseus life. Sailing away, Odysseus yells back his name. Telemus has foretold Polyphemus losing his eye. Sailing away, Odysseus yells back his name. Telemus has foretold Polyphemus losing his eye. Prays to Poseidon for punishment. Prays to Poseidon for punishment.

11 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Devices and Figurative Language a cavern yawning – personification (ll ) a cavern yawning – personification (ll ) he seemed rather a shaggy mountain – metaphor (ll ) he seemed rather a shaggy mountain – metaphor (ll ) sweet scent hovered like a fume – simile comparing the smell to a fume (l.150) sweet scent hovered like a fume – simile comparing the smell to a fume (l.150) cave man – epithet for Polyphemus (l.172) cave man – epithet for Polyphemus (l.172) who cast your lives like dice – simile comparing the men to men of chance (ll ) who cast your lives like dice – simile comparing the men to men of chance (ll ) Dramatic Irony – when Odysseus lies about the ship being crashed on the rocks Dramatic Irony – when Odysseus lies about the ship being crashed on the rocks

12 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) caught two in his hands like squirming puppies- simile comparing men being eaten to puppies (l.234) caught two in his hands like squirming puppies- simile comparing men being eaten to puppies (l.234) gaping and crunching like a mountain lion – simile comparing Polyphemus to a mountain lion (l.237) gaping and crunching like a mountain lion – simile comparing Polyphemus to a mountain lion (l.237) lay down like a mast among his sheep – simile comparing Polyphemus to a mast (l.243) lay down like a mast among his sheep – simile comparing Polyphemus to a mast (l.243) young Dawn with fingertips of rose – epithet for Dawn young Dawn with fingertips of rose – epithet for Dawn reset the stone as one would cap a quiver – simile comparing stone to a quiver cap (l.260) reset the stone as one would cap a quiver – simile comparing stone to a quiver cap (l.260) Symbolism in olive tree – Athenas symbols Symbolism in olive tree – Athenas symbols

13 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) like a mast, a lugger of twenty oars – simile comparing the spear to a mast (l.269) like a mast, a lugger of twenty oars – simile comparing the spear to a mast (l.269) fires heart – metaphor (l.276) fires heart – metaphor (l.276) Situational Irony – rams come in for the night Situational Irony – rams come in for the night Dramatic Irony – Lies about his name Dramatic Irony – Lies about his name Situational Irony – eating him last is not a gift Situational Irony – eating him last is not a gift …and leaned on it as a shipwright… epic simile comparing Odysseus to a shipwright (ll ) …and leaned on it as a shipwright… epic simile comparing Odysseus to a shipwright (ll ) red-hot… seared… hissed broiling and roots popped – imagery (ll ) red-hot… seared… hissed broiling and roots popped – imagery (ll ) In a smithy…just as that eyeball hissed… epic simile comparing Odysseus to a blacksmith (ll ) In a smithy…just as that eyeball hissed… epic simile comparing Odysseus to a blacksmith (ll )

14 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) rock roared – personification (l.345) rock roared – personification (l.345) like a charm – simile comparing the lie to a charm (l.365) like a charm – simile comparing the lie to a charm (l.365) death sat there huge – personification (l.372) death sat there huge – personification (l.372) wooliest ram, choicest of the flock – symbolism, Odysseus is the leader of the pack (l.383) wooliest ram, choicest of the flock – symbolism, Odysseus is the leader of the pack (l.383) Dawn spread out her fingertips of rose – epithet for Dawn (l.388) Dawn spread out her fingertips of rose – epithet for Dawn (l.388) Dramatic Irony – Polyphemus does not know that Odysseus is under the rams belly Dramatic Irony – Polyphemus does not know that Odysseus is under the rams belly Character flaw – Boastful, Pride=HUBRIS Character flaw – Boastful, Pride=HUBRIS Laertes son raider of cities – epithets for Odysseus (ll ) Laertes son raider of cities – epithets for Odysseus (ll )

15 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Cyclops Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) Situational Irony – expected someone large and fierce to take eye, not twiggy and small Situational Irony – expected someone large and fierce to take eye, not twiggy and small Verbal Irony – Polyphemus lies and uses reverse psychology to tempt Odysseus Verbal Irony – Polyphemus lies and uses reverse psychology to tempt Odysseus blue girdler of islands – epithet for Poseidon (l.484) blue girdler of islands – epithet for Poseidon (l.484) god of earthquake – epithet for Poseidon (l.481) god of earthquake – epithet for Poseidon (l.481) Foreshadowing – lose companions, strange sail Foreshadowing – lose companions, strange sail Young Dawn with fingertips of rose – epithet for Dawn (l.519) Young Dawn with fingertips of rose – epithet for Dawn (l.519)

16 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Land of the Dead Summary Aeolus gives Odysseus a bag of winds. Blows them back to Ithaca. Aeolus gives Odysseus a bag of winds. Blows them back to Ithaca. Odysseus tells men not to open; sleeps. Odysseus tells men not to open; sleeps. Men get curious and greedy, open bag and blown away from Ithaca. Men get curious and greedy, open bag and blown away from Ithaca. Land of Laestrygonians – giant cannibals eat several men. Destroy all but 1 ship. Land of Laestrygonians – giant cannibals eat several men. Destroy all but 1 ship.

17 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Land of the Dead Summary (cont.) Island of Circe – men turned to pigs, spends a year with her. Island of Circe – men turned to pigs, spends a year with her. Sails to the Land of the Dead to meet with Tieresias (blind prophet). Sees Elpenor (man who died on Circes island) and Anticleia (mother committed suicide). Sails to the Land of the Dead to meet with Tieresias (blind prophet). Sees Elpenor (man who died on Circes island) and Anticleia (mother committed suicide). Teiresias gives him advice about the future, warns against Helios cattle. Teiresias gives him advice about the future, warns against Helios cattle.

18 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Land of the Dead Devices and Figurative Language singing nymph with sunbright hair – epithet for Circe (l.533) singing nymph with sunbright hair – epithet for Circe (l.533) son of great Laertes master mariner and soldier – epithet for Odysseus (l.587) son of great Laertes master mariner and soldier – epithet for Odysseus (l.587) prince of Thebes – epithet for Teiresias (l.620) prince of Thebes – epithet for Teiresias (l.620)

19 Melissa Biggs 2010 Part I: The Land of the Dead Devices and Figurative Language cont. son of Laertes and the gods of old master of landways and seaways – epithet for Odysseus (l. 623) son of Laertes and the gods of old master of landways and seaways – epithet for Odysseus (l. 623) prince of those with the gift of speech – epithet for Teiresias (l.631) prince of those with the gift of speech – epithet for Teiresias (l.631) god who thunders on land – epithet for Poseidon (l.634) god who thunders on land – epithet for Poseidon (l.634)

20 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: The Sirens Summary Circe gives advice about the Sirens. Circe gives advice about the Sirens. Odysseus plans to hear their song. Puts beeswax in mens ears and they bind him to the mast. Odysseus plans to hear their song. Puts beeswax in mens ears and they bind him to the mast. Odysseus is tempted and tries to get loose; sail past safely. Odysseus is tempted and tries to get loose; sail past safely.

21 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: The Sirens Devices and Figurative Language singing nymph with sunbright hair – epithet for Circe (l.682) singing nymph with sunbright hair – epithet for Circe (l.682) tight as a splint – simile comparing Odysseus as a splint (l. 695) tight as a splint – simile comparing Odysseus as a splint (l. 695) lord of high noon – epithet for Helios (l.711) lord of high noon – epithet for Helios (l.711) Symbolism – Sirens represent temptation Symbolism – Sirens represent temptation

22 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: Scylla and Charybdis Summary Odysseus men fear the sounds of Charybdis. He convinces them to row on. Odysseus men fear the sounds of Charybdis. He convinces them to row on. Havent we seen fear before? Havent we seen fear before? They make it past Charybdis, but Scylla eats 6 of his best men. They make it past Charybdis, but Scylla eats 6 of his best men.

23 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: Scylla and Charybdis Devices and Figurative Language Dramatic Irony – we know that Odysseus will make a sacrifice of six men Dramatic Irony – we know that Odysseus will make a sacrifice of six men Symbolism – all or nothing – sacrifice Symbolism – all or nothing – sacrifice monster of the gray rock – epithet for Scylla (l.791) monster of the gray rock – epithet for Scylla (l.791) dire gorge of the salt sea-tide – epithet for Charybdis (l. 798) dire gorge of the salt sea-tide – epithet for Charybdis (l. 798) fell like rain – simile comparing the sea to rain (l.802) fell like rain – simile comparing the sea to rain (l.802)

24 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: Scylla and Charybdis Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) rock bellowing – personification (l.805) rock bellowing – personification (l.805) Situational Irony – six of his best men are eaten Situational Irony – six of his best men are eaten A man surfcasting… so these were borne aloft. – epic simile comparing Scylla to a fisherman catching fish (ll ) A man surfcasting… so these were borne aloft. – epic simile comparing Scylla to a fisherman catching fish (ll )

25 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun God Summary Odysseus and men land of island of Thrinacia. Odysseus and men land of island of Thrinacia. Odysseus reminds men that they have enough food. After a long stay, they run out. Odysseus goes to pray. Odysseus reminds men that they have enough food. After a long stay, they run out. Odysseus goes to pray. Eurylochus gives speech encouraging them to eat cattle – die being punished by gods, not by starving. Eurylochus gives speech encouraging them to eat cattle – die being punished by gods, not by starving. They eat the cattle; Helios asks Zeus to avenge him. Zeus agrees. They eat the cattle; Helios asks Zeus to avenge him. Zeus agrees.

26 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun God Summary (cont.) Zeus sends a storm and kills all men, destroys his ship. Zeus sends a storm and kills all men, destroys his ship. Odysseus floats back to Charybdis, survives by holding to a branch off a cliff. Odysseus floats back to Charybdis, survives by holding to a branch off a cliff. Escapes Scylla also. Escapes Scylla also. Floats to Calypsos island and is captive for seven years. Floats to Calypsos island and is captive for seven years.

27 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun God Devices and Figurative Language Dawn with fingertips of rose – epithet (l.833) Dawn with fingertips of rose – epithet (l.833) Lord of High Noon – epithet for Helios (l.873) Lord of High Noon – epithet for Helios (l.873) Overlord of Noon – epithet for Helios (l.904) Overlord of Noon – epithet for Helios (l.904) Son of Cronus – epithet for Zeus (l.931) Son of Cronus – epithet for Zeus (l.931) whining from the west – personification (l.941) whining from the west – personification (l.941) like a diver – simile comparing the soul of a dead man to a diver (l. 947) like a diver – simile comparing the soul of a dead man to a diver (l. 947) bobbing awhile like petrels on the waves – simile comparing dead bodies to birds (ll ) bobbing awhile like petrels on the waves – simile comparing dead bodies to birds (ll )

28 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun God Devices and Figurative Language (cont.) whirlpool drank the tide – personification (l.969) whirlpool drank the tide – personification (l.969) catching on like a bat under a bough – simile comparing Odysseus to a bat (l. 971) catching on like a bat under a bough – simile comparing Odysseus to a bat (l. 971) And, ah!... goes home to supper. – epic simile comparing Odysseus to a merchant going home (ll ) And, ah!... goes home to supper. – epic simile comparing Odysseus to a merchant going home (ll ) Father of gods and men – epithet for Zeus (l.987) Father of gods and men – epithet for Zeus (l.987)

29 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Twenty Years Gone Summary Odysseus finishes his story to Alcinous, King of Phaecians. Odysseus finishes his story to Alcinous, King of Phaecians. Sails home after 10 years. Sails home after 10 years. Suitors have been after his wife, land, and son (planning murder). Meanwhile, Telemachus searches for his father. Suitors have been after his wife, land, and son (planning murder). Meanwhile, Telemachus searches for his father. Athena disguises him as a beggar. Athena disguises him as a beggar. Eumaues (swineherd) does not recognize him. Telemachus does with disguise removed. Eumaues (swineherd) does not recognize him. Telemachus does with disguise removed. Plan to fight suitors – do not tell women. Plan to fight suitors – do not tell women.

30 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Twenty Years Gone Devices and Figurative Language Son of Laertes and the gods of old – epithet for Odysseus (l.1009) Son of Laertes and the gods of old – epithet for Odysseus (l.1009) master of landways and seaways – epithet for Odysseus (l.1010) master of landways and seaways – epithet for Odysseus (l.1010) here you stand like one of the immortals – simile comparing Odysseus to a god (l.1044) here you stand like one of the immortals – simile comparing Odysseus to a god (l.1044) hope of soldiers – epithet for Athena (l.1053) hope of soldiers – epithet for Athena (l.1053) cries burst from both as keen… as those – epic simile comparing tears of Odysseus and Telemachus to a hawk with babies taken (ll ) cries burst from both as keen… as those – epic simile comparing tears of Odysseus and Telemachus to a hawk with babies taken (ll )

31 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Argus Summary Argus is Odysseus dog. He has been disrespected and treated badly. Sits in a pile of dung. Argus is Odysseus dog. He has been disrespected and treated badly. Sits in a pile of dung. When he hears Odysseus voice, recognizes him immediately. When he hears Odysseus voice, recognizes him immediately. Wags tail, then dies. Odysseus sheds a tear. Wags tail, then dies. Odysseus sheds a tear. Waited for him to return – loyalty. Waited for him to return – loyalty.

32 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Argus Devices and Figurative Language Symbolism – treated like dung, lays in dung Symbolism – treated like dung, lays in dung Dramatic Irony – we know Argus recognizes Odysseus Dramatic Irony – we know Argus recognizes Odysseus Theme – Loyalty to master Theme – Loyalty to master Theme – Code of Hospitality Theme – Code of Hospitality

33 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: The Suitors Summary Odysseus enters as the beggar. Odysseus enters as the beggar. Antinous, the most arrogant, yells at him and throws a stool. Will not share. Antinous, the most arrogant, yells at him and throws a stool. Will not share. Telemachus takes down the weapons. Telemachus takes down the weapons. Eurynome comes and takes Odysseus to Penelopes room. Eurynome comes and takes Odysseus to Penelopes room.

34 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: The Suitors Devices and Figurative Language Dramatic Irony – Odysseus is home and not a beggar. Dramatic Irony – Odysseus is home and not a beggar. Situational Irony – Antinous acts as if he owns the home Situational Irony – Antinous acts as if he owns the home like solid rock – simile comparing Odysseus shoulder to a rock (l.1230) like solid rock – simile comparing Odysseus shoulder to a rock (l.1230) looking like strangers – simile comparing the beggar to a stranger (l.1257) looking like strangers – simile comparing the beggar to a stranger (l.1257) heart felt the blow – metaphor describing how Telemachus is affected by what he saw (l.1262) heart felt the blow – metaphor describing how Telemachus is affected by what he saw (l.1262)

35 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Penelope Summary The beggar comes to Penelopes room to talk and tells her that he has seen her husband. The beggar comes to Penelopes room to talk and tells her that he has seen her husband. His story tests her faithfulness and dedication. His story tests her faithfulness and dedication. She begins the death shroud test. They find out about it. She begins the death shroud test. They find out about it.

36 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Odysseus Revenge Summary Penelope says shell marry any man that can string Odysseus bow. Several try and fail. Penelope says shell marry any man that can string Odysseus bow. Several try and fail. Beggar wants a turn. On first try, strings the bow, shoots arrow through 12 axe handles. Beggar wants a turn. On first try, strings the bow, shoots arrow through 12 axe handles. 2 nd shot hits Antinous in throat and kills him; suitors believe it an accident.Reveals himself – Promises death to all. 2 nd shot hits Antinous in throat and kills him; suitors believe it an accident.Reveals himself – Promises death to all. Eurymachus attempts a bribe. Eurymachus attempts a bribe. All suitors killed with help from Eumaeus, Philoetius, Telemachus and Athena. All suitors killed with help from Eumaeus, Philoetius, Telemachus and Athena.

37 Melissa Biggs 2010 Pt. II: Penelope (Reunited) Summary Penelope is unsure about Odysseus. Cautious, doesnt want to be tricked. Penelope is unsure about Odysseus. Cautious, doesnt want to be tricked. Tests him. Asks for the bed to be moved to the hallway. Tests him. Asks for the bed to be moved to the hallway. Odysseus upset. He made the bed from a tree rooted to the spot. Proves his identity. Odysseus upset. He made the bed from a tree rooted to the spot. Proves his identity. Love each other… happily ever after. Love each other… happily ever after.


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