3Agenda Objectives/ Research Applications Learn, Practice, and Discuss New StrategiesBreak 10:00-10:15 AMLunch 11:30-12:15 PMBreak 1:30-1:45 PMFinal Thoughts and Discussion 3 PM
4Objectives for today…To learn research-based strategies to help with reading comprehension, writing, content learningTo model and practice the strategies in the workshop activitiesTo provide time to process new learning and plan implementation of these strategiesNot new…just strategic!
5Clock BuddiesPg. 2Find 4 people that you will meet with during this session to share, discuss, and reflect.Make appointments for 12, 3, 6, and 9 on your clock.
6Common Core Connections In the new Common Core Standards, informational text is a priority.Ratio of informational to literary textsElementary 50/50High School 70/30Common Core also has a focus on writing skills in the content areas.
7Teaching Comprehension OLD, INCORRECT THINKINGNEW THINKING BASED ON RESEARCHComprehension occurs naturally after a student learns to decode, thus comprehension just needs to be tested.Comprehension will improve through isolated teaching of specific comprehension skills (e.g. sequence, cause and effect, main idea).Students must be taught to flexibly use a repertoire of strategies for text comprehension.This slide is showing what the research is saying about good comprehenders. They use a multitude of strategies to comprehend text. We need to teach these strategies and teach students how to comprehend – not just test their understanding. Too often, teachers think that if they just hand students a list of questions, they are teaching comprehension. This is not the case – that is testing comprehension – not teaching.Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001; Carlisle and Rice, 2002; Smith in Birsh, 1999
8Teaching vs Testing Comprehension Developing ComprehensionDetermining ComprehensionvsProcess-OrientedProduct-OrientedModelingTestingGradingThis is a graphic to further illustrate the previous slide. There is a difference between helping students develop comprehension skills and determining if they have them. Have a discussion with participants about what happens in classrooms on a regular basis especially in the upper grades. What are some ways we can help students develop comprehension skills instead of always going toward evaluating? Our goal is to teach comprehension as illustrated on the left, not to simply test if students can comprehend.Guided PracticeEvaluatingIndependence(Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from Richardson & Morgan, 2000)
9What Do Good Readers Do?Make predictions based on background knowledgeIdentify key ideas from text they are readingAre aware of text structuresMonitor their comprehension and know how to employ fix-up strategiesHave a knowledge of and use a variety of reading strategies effectively.Paraphrase, explain and summarize information and construct conclusionsAsk participants before clicking the points under the title. Most of these will be given through discussion and you can just use this slide as a quick summary.Summary of Good Readers is from both Birsh editions. Page 185 in 1st ed and p. 379 in 2nd ed. The main point to make here is that good comprehenders are ENGAGED while reading. They may be having a conversation with the author, they are questioning, scanning expository text – reading the picture headings, studying the graphs, etc. You may just have your participants generate these ideas before showing the slide and then use this slide as a summary. Most participants will bring these things up and then you can use this slide just to verify their ideas.
10National Reading Panel On Comprehension Directly teaching comprehension strategies leads to improvements in comprehension.Strategies are most effective when taught in combination and used flexibly in active, naturalistic learning situationsTeachers can be taught to be effective in teaching comprehension.There is a need for extensive teacher preparation to teach comprehension.These points will come in one at a time for you to review NRP on comprehensionNational Reading Panel, 2002
11National Reading Panel: Research-Supported Strategies comprehension monitoringcooperative learninggraphic and semantic organizersstory structurequestion answeringquestion generationsummarizationmultiple strategiesThese strategies were found by the National Reading Panel to be ones that are supported by research as most effective for improving reading comprehension. Note: this does not mean that other strategies were not effective – some strategies have simply not been studied yet. The point is that we have good evidence for using these strategies with students. This will be the framework for the following slides. Info. on most of the strategies will be provided.National Reading Panel, 2001
13Comprehension Strategy Instruction – Teacher Actions important for Success Make explicit connection between strategy and application in textRepeatedly state and model the “secret” to doing it successfully so students “see” the mental workings involvedProvide students with multiple opportunities to perform the strategy themselvesBase assessment on both strategy use and text comprehension(Duffy, in Comprehension Instruction ed. by Block and Pressley, 2002)Research keeps saying to use strategy instruction but many teachers do not understand exactly how to teach strategies to students. These were the teacher actions found to be the most instrumental in student success with strategies.
14Two Minute TalksPg. 1Purpose: To activate prior knowledge and focus student learning on the topic about to be addressed.Directions:Share with your 12 o’clock partner by brainstorming everything you already know (prior knowledge) about Veteran’s Day.
15You Ought to be in Pictures Pg. 3Purpose: to make connections to prior knowledge and allow students to make personal connections in order to motivate them to read and comprehend new texts.Directions:Write down your individual reactions to the picture. Make sure that you describe any personal connections you have to the topic.
17ReadNow read the selection “Veterans Day History.”
18PET Check Non-fiction reading Visual Note-taking Tool Collaborative Pg. 4Non-fiction readingVisual Note-taking ToolCollaborativeWriting in content areas
19Suggestions for working with vocabulary 1. Provide a clear and concise definition of a target word2. Use dialogue in which the words meaning is explored in context3. Relate the word to the student’s experience4. Provide descriptions, explanations or examples of the new word5. Have the student restate the description or explanation in his or her own words6. Use the word
20What the research says… The use of non-linguistic representations by teachers in the action research studies was associated with a gain in student academic achievement of 27 percentile points.Robert MarzanoDrawings/ SketchesGraphic OrganizersPictures to explain vocabulary and other concepts
21Trading CardsPg. 4Purpose: To apply new vocabulary and provide students opportunities to talk about the contentDirections:Use the assigned word to create a trading card.Picture of the word Write the definition inkid friendly termsWrite the word or write a descriptionFrontBack
22“Warts” Contagious: tending to spread from person to person Orthodox: customary or conventionalCaustic: capable of burningCharm: a magic spellNodule: a small, rounded mass or lumpTransference: movement or placementReliance: confidence, trust, faithQuirk: a peculiarity of action, behavior, or personality
23Expert to ExpertPurpose: To allow students to practice new information, talk about what they have learned, and teach!Directions:Form 2 lines of students facing one another.Each student teaches the new word/concept/ etc.Students in one line rotate to work with another student.Repeat until all students have heard everyone.
24KWL/ KLQ/ KWL+ Write a few lines about what you know about warts. Pg. 7Write a few lines about what you know about warts.
25Read Now read the selection “Warts.” Return to your chart and write what you learned about warts.List any questions you still have about warts.
26Teaching Vocabulary Give both definitional and contextual information Involve children more actively in word learningProvide them with opportunities to process information and make connectionsNumber of instructional encounters:between 7 and 12 are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed wordsGive information about what a word means and how it is used. These bullets come in one at a time. Have them fill in the blanks on their ppt. for number of instructional encounters. It should say: Number of instructional encounters – between 7 and 12 are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed words.
273x3 VocabularyPg. 10Purpose: To promote the development of complete sentences and the identification of relationships between conceptsDirections:Write six sentences that will show the relationships between the words in column 1 down, 2 down, 3 down and rows 1 across, 2 across, and 3 across.
29What the research says… The direct teaching of vocabulary by teachers in the action research studies was associated with a gain in student academic achievement of 22 percentile points.Robert Marzano
30Three Step InterviewPg. 12Purpose: To engage students in conversation for the purpose of analyzing and synthesizing new information.Directions:1. Work with your 3 o’clock partner. One is the interviewer, the other is the interviewee. The interviewer listens actively to the comments and thoughts of the interviewee, paraphrasing key points and significant details.2. Reverse roles, repeating the interview process.3. Join another pair to form groups of four Introduce your partner and share what the partner had to say about the topic at hand.
31Three Step Interview The worst storm I can remember Topic for interview:The worst storm I can remember
32Talking DrawingsPg. 16Purpose: To activate and evaluate student knowledge of a topic.Description: Students will activate prior knowledge by creating a graphic representation of a topic before the lesson. After engaging in learning about that topic, students will re-evaluate their prior knowledge by drawing a second depiction of their topic. They will then summarize what the different drawings say to them about what they learned.
33Talking Drawings Close your eyes and think about tornadoes. On scratch paper, draw a tornado and include details that you were thinking.
34Read Now read the selection “Tornadoes.” Return to your drawing and add to it new information that you learned based on the reading.Share with your 6 o’clock partner.
35Sentence ExpansionPg. 14Purpose: To increase vocabulary by helping students elaborate on concepts and words.Directions:Work with your 9 o’clock partner to expand the following sentences. Use information from the selection on tornadoes to add details and information.
36Sentence Expansion 1. A tornado is a wind storm. 2. Tornadoes can be destructive.3. Unstable air causes a tornado.4. A safety plan is important in case of a tornado.
37Collaborative Listening/ Viewing Guide (CLVG) Pg. 17Purpose: Guides students in organizing new information while listening, viewing new material.Can be used with videos, guest speakers, field tripsThis strategy helps students to elaborate on their note-taking.
38Window Pane SummaryPurpose: To summarize learning using the higher order thinking skills of analysis, elaboration, and paraphrasing.Great for lengthy and unfamiliar contentHelps students identify key areas of the reading selection and helps to chunk informationIncreases students’ understanding of content and helps with elaboration of information
40Read Now read the selection “The Lifeline of the Nile.” Complete your Window Pane Summary. Use the following headings:LocationTransportationCropsProblems
41What the research says… The use of cues and questions by teachers in the action research studies was associated with a gain in student academic achievement of 22 percentile points over what was expected when teachers did not use cues and questions. Robert Marzano
42QARsPg. 22Purpose: To help student recognize question types and create quality questions4 basic types of questionsHelps students recognize the construction of a questionHelps students determine answers to textbook and test questions
43QARsRight There Questions: Answer is in the text, usually all in one sentenceThink and Search Questions: Answer is in the text, different pieces of information from different locations in the text.Author and You Questions: Answer isn’t in the text, based on information in the selection and your prior knowledgeOn My Own Questions: Answer isn’t in the text, can be answered without reading the selection.
44QARsCreate one question for each type based on the selection about the Nile River.Work with your tablemates.Share with the group.
45Word WheelsPg. 25Purpose: to help students analyze a word, provides deep thinking about vocabularyPost for the class to see during a unit of study.Have partners create different word wheels.
46Study Stars/ Story Stars Pg. 26Purpose: to help students organize important information and to summarize what they learned.
47What the research says… Similarities and differencesThe brain seeks patterns, connections, and relationships between and among prior and new learning.The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand and often solve complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way.Finding similarities and differences can increase student achievement by 45%
48Word SortsPg. 28Purpose: To help students categorize and classify words and terms based on their understanding of a topic.Students examine relationships and connectionsOpen SortsClosed SortsCooperative Learning
49Concept CirclesPg. 31Purpose: to help students understand concepts and vocabularyDivide circle into 4 or more equal sectionsStudents discuss which concepts belong to the group and which isn’t relatedSometimes called “Odd One Out”Can include written explanationGreat for test reviews
54This is a focused definition This is a focused definition. Each fraction can be assigned to a group and then the maps can be rotated from group to group in order for other equivalent fractions to be added. Later the maps can be posted on a bulletin board.
64Head Body Numerator Fraction AS Is the top part of... Bridge MapHeadNumeratorASBodyFractionPoint out the importance of including the relating factor. If the example above is read as Is To then many people would say “The head is to the body as the numerator is to the denominator.” The relating factor clearly defines the relationship and helps students identify the correct answer.Is the top part of...Relating Factor: _________________
66What the research says…. Summarizing and Note Taking increases student achievement by 34%.These skills promote greater comprehension by asking students to analyze a subject to expose what’s essential and then put it into their own words.
67Tear and Share Great for Unit Tests and EOG Review. Cooperative LearningDiscussion of ContentWriting about Content
68Websites to Review www.freereading.net www.readwritethink.org Jim Burke m/notemaking.htm(go to tools and resources)
69Summary Of Best Practices: Teaching Comprehension Set stage to show how reading activity changes according to text and purposeExplain and model steps in strategyPresent more than one situation or text in which strategy would be usefulProvide many opportunities for practiceEncourage think aloudsHave student suggest times and conditions for strategyGo through these quickly. These are found in Birsh 2nd ed. on page 384Mason and Au, 1986
70Shape Up ReviewPg. 35One thing I liked/ loved important things / concepts to remember3 important facts 1 global statement to summarize