Objectives/ Research Applications Learn, Practice, and Discuss New Strategies Break 10:00-10:15 AM Learn, Practice, and Discuss New Strategies Lunch 11:30-12:15 PM Learn, Practice, and Discuss New Strategies Break 1:30-1:45 PM Learn, Practice, and Discuss New Strategies Final Thoughts and Discussion 3 PM
To learn research-based strategies to help with reading comprehension, writing, content learning To model and practice the strategies in the workshop activities To provide time to process new learning and plan implementation of these strategies Not new…just strategic!
Find 4 people that you will meet with during this session to share, discuss, and reflect. Make appointments for 12, 3, 6, and 9 on your clock. Pg. 2
In the new Common Core Standards, informational text is a priority. Ratio of informational to literary texts Elementary 50/50 High School 70/30 Common Core also has a focus on writing skills in the content areas.
OLD, INCORRECT THINKING NEW THINKING BASED ON RESEARCH Comprehension occurs naturally after a student learns to decode, thus comprehension just needs to be tested. Comprehension will improve through isolated teaching of specific comprehension skills (e.g. sequence, cause and effect, main idea). Students must be taught to flexibly use a repertoire of strategies for text comprehension. Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001; Carlisle and Rice, 2002; Smith in Birsh, 1999
Developing Comprehension Process-OrientedProduct-Oriented TestingGrading Evaluating Guided Practice Independence Modeling (Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from Richardson & Morgan, 2000) Determining Comprehension vs
Make predictions based on background knowledge Identify key ideas from text they are reading Are aware of text structures Monitor their comprehension and know how to employ fix-up strategies Have a knowledge of and use a variety of reading strategies effectively. Paraphrase, explain and summarize information and construct conclusions
Directly teaching comprehension strategies leads to improvements in comprehension. Strategies are most effective when taught in combination and used flexibly in active, naturalistic learning situations Teachers can be taught to be effective in teaching comprehension. There is a need for extensive teacher preparation to teach comprehension. National Reading Panel, 2002
comprehension monitoring cooperative learning graphic and semantic organizers story structure question answering question generation summarization multiple strategies National Reading Panel, 2001
Make explicit connection between strategy and application in text Repeatedly state and model the secret to doing it successfully so students see the mental workings involved Provide students with multiple opportunities to perform the strategy themselves Base assessment on both strategy use and text comprehension (Duffy, in Comprehension Instruction ed. by Block and Pressley, 2002)
Purpose: To activate prior knowledge and focus student learning on the topic about to be addressed. Directions: Share with your 12 oclock partner by brainstorming everything you already know (prior knowledge) about Veterans Day. Pg. 1
Purpose: to make connections to prior knowledge and allow students to make personal connections in order to motivate them to read and comprehend new texts. Directions: Write down your individual reactions to the picture. Make sure that you describe any personal connections you have to the topic. Pg. 3
Non-fiction reading Visual Note-taking Tool Collaborative Writing in content areas Pg. 4
1. Provide a clear and concise definition of a target word 2. Use dialogue in which the words meaning is explored in context 3. Relate the word to the students experience 4. Provide descriptions, explanations or examples of the new word 5. Have the student restate the description or explanation in his or her own words 6. Use the word
The use of non-linguistic representations by teachers in the action research studies was associated with a gain in student academic achievement of 27 percentile points. Robert Marzano Drawings/ Sketches Graphic Organizers Pictures to explain vocabulary and other concepts
Purpose: To apply new vocabulary and provide students opportunities to talk about the content Directions: Use the assigned word to create a trading card. Picture of the wordWrite the definition in kid friendly terms Write the wordor write a description Front Back Pg. 4
Contagious: tending to spread from person to person Orthodox: customary or conventional Caustic: capable of burning Charm: a magic spell Nodule: a small, rounded mass or lump Transference: movement or placement Reliance: confidence, trust, faith Quirk: a peculiarity of action, behavior, or personality
Purpose: To allow students to practice new information, talk about what they have learned, and teach! Directions: Form 2 lines of students facing one another. Each student teaches the new word/concept/ etc. Students in one line rotate to work with another student. Repeat until all students have heard everyone.
Write a few lines about what you know about warts. Pg. 7
Now read the selection Warts. Return to your chart and write what you learned about warts. List any questions you still have about warts.
Give both definitional and contextual information Involve children more actively in word learning Provide them with opportunities to process information and make connections Number of instructional encounters: between 7 and 12 are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed words
Purpose: To promote the development of complete sentences and the identification of relationships between concepts Directions: Write six sentences that will show the relationships between the words in column 1 down, 2 down, 3 down and rows 1 across, 2 across, and 3 across. Pg. 10
The direct teaching of vocabulary by teachers in the action research studies was associated with a gain in student academic achievement of 22 percentile points. Robert Marzano
Purpose: To engage students in conversation for the purpose of analyzing and synthesizing new information. Directions: 1. Work with your 3 oclock partner. One is the interviewer, the other is the interviewee. The interviewer listens actively to the comments and thoughts of the interviewee, paraphrasing key points and significant details. 2. Reverse roles, repeating the interview process. 3. Join another pair to form groups of four. Introduce your partner and share what the partner had to say about the topic at hand. Pg. 12
Topic for interview: The worst storm I can remember
Purpose: To activate and evaluate student knowledge of a topic. Description: Students will activate prior knowledge by creating a graphic representation of a topic before the lesson. After engaging in learning about that topic, students will re-evaluate their prior knowledge by drawing a second depiction of their topic. They will then summarize what the different drawings say to them about what they learned. Pg. 16
Close your eyes and think about tornadoes. On scratch paper, draw a tornado and include details that you were thinking.
Now read the selection Tornadoes. Return to your drawing and add to it new information that you learned based on the reading. Share with your 6 oclock partner.
Purpose: To increase vocabulary by helping students elaborate on concepts and words. Directions: Work with your 9 oclock partner to expand the following sentences. Use information from the selection on tornadoes to add details and information. Pg. 14
1. A tornado is a wind storm. 2. Tornadoes can be destructive. 3. Unstable air causes a tornado. 4. A safety plan is important in case of a tornado.
Purpose: Guides students in organizing new information while listening, viewing new material. Can be used with videos, guest speakers, field trips This strategy helps students to elaborate on their note-taking. Pg. 17
Purpose: To summarize learning using the higher order thinking skills of analysis, elaboration, and paraphrasing. Great for lengthy and unfamiliar content Helps students identify key areas of the reading selection and helps to chunk information Increases students understanding of content and helps with elaboration of information
Now read the selection The Lifeline of the Nile. Complete your Window Pane Summary. Use the following headings: Location Transportation Crops Problems
The use of cues and questions by teachers in the action research studies was associated with a gain in student academic achievement of 22 percentile points over what was expected when teachers did not use cues and questions. Robert Marzano
Purpose: To help student recognize question types and create quality questions 4 basic types of questions Helps students recognize the construction of a question Helps students determine answers to textbook and test questions Pg. 22
Right There Questions: Answer is in the text, usually all in one sentence Think and Search Questions: Answer is in the text, different pieces of information from different locations in the text. Author and You Questions: Answer isnt in the text, based on information in the selection and your prior knowledge On My Own Questions: Answer isnt in the text, can be answered without reading the selection.
Create one question for each type based on the selection about the Nile River. Work with your tablemates. Share with the group.
Purpose: to help students analyze a word, provides deep thinking about vocabulary Post for the class to see during a unit of study. Have partners create different word wheels. Pg. 25
Purpose: to help students organize important information and to summarize what they learned. Pg. 26
Similarities and differences The brain seeks patterns, connections, and relationships between and among prior and new learning. The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand and often solve complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way. Finding similarities and differences can increase student achievement by 45%
Purpose: To help students categorize and classify words and terms based on their understanding of a topic. Students examine relationships and connections Open Sorts Closed Sorts Cooperative Learning Pg. 28
Purpose: to help students understand concepts and vocabulary Divide circle into 4 or more equal sections Students discuss which concepts belong to the group and which isnt related Sometimes called Odd One Out Can include written explanation Great for test reviews Pg. 31
Summarizing and Note Taking increases student achievement by 34%. These skills promote greater comprehension by asking students to analyze a subject to expose whats essential and then put it into their own words.
Great for Unit Tests and EOG Review. Cooperative Learning Discussion of Content Writing about Content
www.freereading.net www.readwritethink.org Jim Burke http://www.englishcompanion.com/classroo m/notemaking.htm http://www.englishcompanion.com/classroo m/notemaking.htm www.howstuffworks.com www.refdesk.com www.readinglady.com (go to tools and resources)
Set stage to show how reading activity changes according to text and purpose Explain and model steps in strategy Present more than one situation or text in which strategy would be useful Provide many opportunities for practice Encourage think alouds Have student suggest times and conditions for strategy Mason and Au, 1986
One thing I liked/ loved 4 important things / concepts to remember 3 important facts1 global statement to summarize Pg. 35