Presentation on theme: "Language Arts Social Studies Math Science Mia Johnson, Lora Drum Curriculum Specialists."— Presentation transcript:
Language Arts Social Studies Math Science Mia Johnson, Lora Drum Curriculum Specialists
Brainstorming Activity Before, During, and After Reading Highlight strategies you use to teach reading in your classroom. Circle strategies you use to teach science and social studies.
What does the research say? One position -- interdisciplinary curriculum -- emphasizes connections between language arts and content area learning (e.g., Grisham, 1995; Roehler, 1983) or problem-centered, thematic pursuits (e.g., Anders & Pritchard, 1993; Powell & Skoog, 1995).Grisham, 1995 Roehler, 1983Anders & Pritchard, 1993Powell & Skoog, 1995 From this perspective, language and literacy are "functional tools, rather than curricular entities to be studied or mastered in their own right" (Pearson, 1994, p. 19).Pearson, 1994, In these definitions, the curricular unit must be seen to involve more than one discipline or school subject. This conception highlights the integration of content by blending the disciplines through "overlapping skills, concepts, and attitudes" (Fogarty, 1991, p. 64).Fogarty, 1991,
Bristor's (1994) research provides an example of a study focusing on science and language arts integration. Motivated by efficiency and a desire to make content area literacy instruction more meaningful, the investigator designed a program drawing on literacy research to build students' background knowledge prior to reading content texts. Relevant language arts curriculum objectives from district guidelines were linked to science activities. Bristor drew on literature with science content from trade books and the basal reading program, and engaged students in dramatic play related to science themes. Based on results from subtests of standardized tests, the researcher reported gains in achievement in both reading and science for students in the integrated program as compared to those following traditional distinct curricula in the two areas. Further, on a six-scale inventory of affect, students in the integrated program showed more positive attitudes and greater self-confidence than comparable students in the separate curricula.Bristor's (1994) A little more research…
Why Integrate? Most classrooms emphasize recall of specific information and rely heavily on round-robin reading, which has been proven to be ineffective. - Laura Robb, Teaching Reading in Social Studies, Science and Math, 2003
So, whats a SS or Science teacher to do? Lets talk about the Do NOTs first: The following models of instruction have no research to support their effectiveness: * assign chapters to read silently * round robin read aloud text * answer questions at the end of the chapter * deliver a lecture and students copy or take notes * show a video without an activity
Okay, so whats most effective? Research shows that effective teachers intersperse questions throughout all classroom activities ( Something to think about: No doctor asks questions after the patient has passed! Doctors ask questions during the treatment of the patient!) Hint: Does this sound like formative assessment?
So, Tell me more… Students focused on educational goals do best in mastering the subject matter. Students working in small groups can support and increase one anothers learning Extensive reading promotes increased vocabulary and comprehension. Increasing wait time to 3-5 seconds after asking a question increases more thoughtful responses and increased achievement. - The First Days of School by Harry K. Wong & Rosemary T. Wong (2001)
Traditional FormatNew Format Reading assignment given Silent or Round Robin reading Discussion/Activity to see if students learned main concepts, what they should have learned Prereading activities Activating Prior Knowledge Discussion Predictions Questioning Brainstorming Setting purpose ACTIVE reading Activities to clarify, reinforce, extend knowledge
The boys arrows were nearly gone so they sat down on the grass and stopped hunting. Over at the edge of the wood they saw Henry making a bow to a small girl who was coming down the road. She had tears in her dress and tears in her eyes. She gave Henry a note which he brought over to the group of young hunters. Read to the boys it caused great excitement. After a minute, but rapid examination of their weapons, they ran down to the valley. Does were standing at the edge of the lake, making an excellent target. What strategies did you use to read successfully? Syntax, context, background knowledge, rereading, vocabulary building
Activate Prior Knowledge and Set A Purpose for Reading Figure Out What is Important Organize Knowledge Make Inferences Find out the Meanings of Unknown Words Ask Questions Visualize Set a purpose Activate prior knowledge Preview the reading Introduce important vocabulary
K-W-L Predictions Concept Map Preteach Vocabulary How to Activate Prior Knowledge Before
Prior Knowledge The questions that p______ face as they raise ch_____ from in______ to adult life are not easy to an_____. Both fa____ and m_____ can become concerned when health problems such as co____ arise any time after the e_____ stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young ch______ should have plenty of s____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_____ and g_____ should not share the same b____ or even sleep in the same r____. They may be afraid of the d______. Before Billmeyer, Rachel and Mary Lee Barton. Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Than Who? Aurora: McREL (Mid-continent Regional Education Laboratory),1998
Content Areas Pre-teach Vocabulary before reading text Tier One Words Tier Two Words Tier Three Words 5-10 words a week cumulative In content areas 3T words can become 2T words A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and time in which it is used. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Before
VOCABULARY STRATEGIES WORD PARTS Morphemic Analysis WORD ASSOCIATIONS Illustrate & Associate CATEGORIZATION Semantic Features Map CONTEXT Read Alouds & Questioning CONCEPT Frayer Model Concept Definition Map Before
Reading with a Purpose Fundamental purposes for reading to learn –To grasp a certain message –To find important details –To answer a specific question –To evaluate what you are reading –To apply what you are reading –To be entertained Before Activity Look at the reading materials and decide how you would set the purpose for students.
What am I doing to make meaning while I read? What did I just read? What will I learn next? Make connections *Graphic Organizers Check your understanding *Get the Gist *Reciprocal Teaching *Partner Reading *Use fix up strategies
What did I just learn? What were the main ideas? What do I need to do with this information? Check for understanding; decide if the purpose was met Draw conclusion/evaluate information Apply learning
What could this look like in my classroom?
Tea Party This is an interactive pre-reading strategy that frontloads students knowledge of text information and also allows them to become familiar with phrasing and content words. The strategy can be used with both narrative and expository texts.
Anticipation/Reaction Guide This strategy is used to activate background knowledge before reading or doing and activity, stimulate interest and discussion during reading, compare before an after decisions, reverse misconceptions, and assess students application of new knowledge and/or skills. AG in Action
List-Sort-Label This is a form of semantic mapping. This strategy encourages students to improve vocabulary and categorization skills as well as organize concepts. Categorizing listed words, through sorting/grouping and labeling, helps students organize new concepts in relation to previously learned concepts. List Group Label in Action
Science and Social Studies! Science Article Is this something you think you could do in your class- room?
More activities to share… The National Science Teachers Association supports the notion that inquiry science must be a basic in the daily curriculum of every elementary school student at every grade level. In the last decade, numerous reports have been published calling for reform in education. Each report has highlighted the importance of early experiences in science so that students develop problem-solving skills that empower them to participate in an increasingly scientific and technological world.
Elementary school students learn science best when: »instruction builds directly on the student's conceptual framework. »content is organized on the basis of broad conceptual themes common to all science disciplines. » mathematics and communication skills are an integral part of science instruction.
Kidspiration/Inspiration PowerPoint Photostory Glogster! Voice Threads Live Binders Writing Interactive Notebooks Science Notebooking SS Scrapbooking/Lapbooking! How can I integrate technology, literacy, science and social studies?
Text Features! Is this the missing piece?
Text Feature Instruction Science and SS are the perfect areas to address text features and text structures Text Features Help Students Understand Nonfiction Text Examples of Text Features With Definitions Explanations for How Text Features Help Readers
Text Features Title Table of Contents Photographs Drawings Lists Descriptions Directions Headings Captions near pictures Labels on pictures Different kinds of print (bold, italic, etc.) Drawings that compare things Diagrams Cross-section drawings/cut aways Glossary Index Questions/answers Charts Maps Graphs Bullets Information about the authors research Other:
Teaching Text Features Model, Model, Model Shared/Guided Reading, Interactive/Shared writing Text Feature Scavenger Hunt Students search through informational text with a partner looking for as many features as they can find. They record the feature and its purpose. Investigations Synthesize learning and use informational text features to teach the craft writing expository text.
Lets take a look at some text features…What do you notice?
Text Features BB in 1 st grade classroom
Using the list of Text Features in the table folder and a non-fiction text- identify 5 text features from the list and put a sticky note on the page with an explanation of how this feature helps the reader understand the information better Text Feature Search-Partner Activity countdown timer Your turn!
Text Structures Description Sequence Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution
Text Structure Foldable
Label outside tabs: Inside tabs: Description * jot down key words Sequence to help identify type of Compare & Contrast text structure Cause & Effect * draw any visuals for Problem & Solution clues
Why teach Text Structures? Understanding the expository text structures gives readers a better shot at determining important information when reading nonfiction… The text in standardized tests and traditional textbooks frequently falls into one or another of these text structures. If students know that to look for in terms of text structure, they grasp the meaning more easily. - Nonfiction Matters, by Stephanie Harvey
Research on Informational Text In a set of studies about teaching reading with information texts in first grades, Nell Duke (2000) described experiences offered to children in 20 first-grade classrooms selected from very low and very high socio- economic-status school districts. She found a scarcity of informational texts in these classrooms (particularly the low socio-economic status schools). There were relatively few informational texts included in classroom libraries and on classroom walls and other surfaces. The most startling finding was children in low socioeconomic classrooms had access to and read in information trade books about 3.6 minutes per day on average. Duke, N. K. (2000). For the rich its richer: print experiences and environments offered to children in very low- and very high-socioeconomic status first-grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 37, Duke, N. K. (2000). 3.6 minutes per day: The scarcity of informational texts in first grade. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(2),
Science Frames The ____ and the ___ are the same because they both______. In addition, they______________. Start with how things are same or similar. Then add more as needed. They are different because the ____________________, but the ____________________. Also, the____________________ but ______________________ Explain how they are different. You can compare the same property or characteristic in the same sentence. Betsy Rupp Fulwiler, K-5 inquiry Based Science
Lets look at a few Text Structure Examples Sequence Goose bumps make me shiver. First I get cold. Then I shake all over. Description Goose bumps make me shiver. I get little bumps on my skin. They look like sesame seeds. Compare and Contrast Some people get goose bumps from fear. Others get goose bumps when they are cold. Cause and Effect Goose bumps make me shiver. When the temperature drops below 45 degrees, my skin crinkles into goose bumps. Problem and Solution Goose bumps make me shiver. But they disappear as soon as I cover up with a jacket or blanket.
Lets give it a try… Your turn! Working with a partner, you will use the following basic sentence and develop text structure example sentences similar to the ones we just reviewed on the previous slide. The first day of school is always an interesting day. Sequence Description Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Online Timer
Strategy Groups In your group folder, find an activity titled: Teaching Reading in a Content Area (small group activity) Your group will need a piece of chart paper and markers Lets take a look at your assignment…. Online StopwatchStopwatch
Now it is your turn to add the last piece…
Thanks for coming today and enjoy your summer! Please us with any questions or comments: Lora Drum Mia Johnson