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Science and Social Studies Integration

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1 Science and Social Studies Integration
Math Science Social Studies Language Arts Mia Johnson, Lora Drum Curriculum Specialists

2 Brainstorming Activity
Before, During, and After Reading Highlight strategies you use to teach reading in your classroom. Circle strategies you use to teach science and social studies.

3 What does the research say?
This conception highlights the integration of content by blending the disciplines through "overlapping skills, concepts, and attitudes" (Fogarty, 1991, p. 64). One position -- interdisciplinary curriculum -- emphasizes connections between language arts and content area learning (e.g., Grisham, 1995; Roehler, 1983) or problem-centered, thematic pursuits (e.g., Anders & Pritchard, 1993; Powell & Skoog, 1995). From this perspective, language and literacy are "functional tools, rather than curricular entities to be studied or mastered in their own right" (Pearson, 1994, p. 19). In these definitions, the curricular unit must be seen to involve more than one discipline or school subject.

4 A little more research…
Bristor's (1994) research provides an example of a study focusing on science and language arts integration. Motivated by efficiency and a desire to make content area literacy instruction more meaningful, the investigator designed a program drawing on literacy research to build students' background knowledge prior to reading content texts. Relevant language arts curriculum objectives from district guidelines were linked to science activities. Bristor drew on literature with science content from trade books and the basal reading program, and engaged students in dramatic play related to science themes. Based on results from subtests of standardized tests, the researcher reported gains in achievement in both reading and science for students in the integrated program as compared to those following traditional distinct curricula in the two areas. Further, on a six-scale inventory of affect, students in the integrated program showed more positive attitudes and greater self-confidence than comparable students in the separate curricula. A little more research…

5 Why Integrate? “Most classrooms emphasize recall of specific information and rely heavily on round-robin reading, which has been proven to be ineffective.” - Laura Robb, Teaching Reading in Social Studies, Science and Math, 2003

6 So, what’s a SS or Science teacher to do?
Let’s talk about the Do NOTs first: The following models of instruction have no research to support their effectiveness: * assign chapters to read silently * round robin read aloud text * answer questions at the end of the chapter * deliver a lecture and students copy or take notes * show a video without an activity

7 Okay, so what’s most effective?
Research shows that effective teachers intersperse questions throughout all classroom activities (Something to think about: No doctor asks questions after the patient has passed! Doctors ask questions during the treatment of the patient!) Hint: Does this sound like formative assessment?

8 So, Tell me more… Students focused on educational goals do best in mastering the subject matter. Students working in small groups can support and increase one another’s learning Extensive reading promotes increased vocabulary and comprehension. Increasing wait time to 3-5 seconds after asking a question increases more thoughtful responses and increased achievement. - The First Days of School by Harry K. Wong & Rosemary T. Wong (2001)

9 Silent or Round Robin reading
Traditional Format New Format Prereading activities Activating Prior Knowledge Discussion Predictions Questioning Brainstorming Setting purpose Reading assignment given ACTIVE reading Silent or Round Robin reading Activities to clarify, reinforce, extend knowledge Traditionally in content areas, students have been assigned information on the concept. Students then read the text and then spend time in discussion or activity around the main ideas of the text. Looking at brain research, as well as the research on the needs of ELL and struggling readers, we now know that front loading instruction before students interact with text will provide students with stronger comprehension, and increased chance of transfer to other related ideas, experiences or concepts. A second refinement in our instruction is that text is seldom assigned; instead reading text is an active or guided process, by supporting students in applying decoding strategies in the context of content materials, using partner reading, and rereading to build deeper understanding. Discussion/Activity to see if students learned main concepts, what they “should have” learned

10 What strategies did you use to read successfully?
The boys’ arrows were nearly gone so they sat down on the grass and stopped hunting. Over at the edge of the wood they saw Henry making a bow to a small girl who was coming down the road. She had tears in her dress and tears in her eyes. She gave Henry a note which he brought over to the group of young hunters. Read to the boys it caused great excitement. After a minute, but rapid examination of their weapons, they ran down to the valley. Does were standing at the edge of the lake, making an excellent target. Read the passage silently to yourself. Discuss at your table the strategies you used to read this passage successfully. Keep the suggestions covered until you bring them back together. Teaching reading in the content areas is not about teaching the basic reading skills. The focus is on teaching students how to use reading as a tool for thinking and learning. Learning and reading are active processes. Readers construct meaning as they read. Effective readers: make predictions, organize information interact with the text. evaluate the ideas they are reading about and compare them to what they already know or have experienced in the world. For instance if you had never bowed to anyone, or shot a bow, then Lil’ Bow Wow might have been your reference for b-o-w. Effective readers know how to modify their reading behaviors when they have problems understanding what they read. What strategies did you use to read successfully? Syntax, context, background knowledge, rereading, vocabulary building

11 Before Reading Set a purpose Activate prior knowledge
Activate Prior Knowledge and Set A Purpose for Reading Figure Out What is Important Organize Knowledge Make Inferences Find out the Meanings of Unknown Words Ask Questions Visualize Set a purpose Activate prior knowledge Preview the reading Introduce important vocabulary Content area instruction involves teaching students to deliberately use cognitive strategies to gain meaning and understand text, and to do so across a variety of texts and disciplines. By addressing the needs of prior knowledge, preteaching vocabulary, setting the purpose and addressing text features we can support strong comprehension of the content.

12 How to Activate Prior Knowledge
Before How to Activate Prior Knowledge K-W-L Predictions Concept Map Preteach Vocabulary When we hear the term “ Activate Prior Knowledge!” it may suggest that students come equipped with a magic button that we push and they instantly have memories or experiences they can draw upon to make connection to the text. “Readers whose prior knowledge is accessible and well-developed remember more from their reading than readers whose prior knowledge of the topic is limited.” (Anthony and Raphael) Model the math version of K-W-L on chart paper. Have staff turn to a math problem sample in the handouts and try the K-N-W-S, handout 18, with the sample problem in their small group.

13 Before Prior Knowledge The questions that p______ face as they raise ch_____ from in______ to adult life are not easy to an_____. Both fa____ and m_____ can become concerned when health problems such as co____ arise any time after the e_____ stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young ch______ should have plenty of s____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_____ and g_____ should not share the same b____ or even sleep in the same r____. They may be afraid of the d______. Learners draw on their schema to make inferences, predict, organize, and elaborate on text. When given new information students try to make sense of it by connecting it to experiences and knowledge they already have. Activity- Read the passage to yourself silently. What strategies did you use to decide the missing words? Context clues, personal knowledge… Now listen to the complete passage The questions that poultry men face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark. The passage illustrates that deriving meaning is not simply a matter of reading the words on the page. In order to comprehend a reader must connect the information with previous knowledge filling in any gaps so that the text makes sense to them. Billmeyer, Rachel and Mary Lee Barton. Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Than Who? Aurora: McREL (Mid-continent Regional Education Laboratory),1998

14 5-10 words a week cumulative
Before “ A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and time in which it is used.” Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. 5-10 words a week cumulative Based on the audience/text/content/ concept you are teaching: Tier One words can have a quick verbal association made to explain them that will not interrupt the flow of content. For example- The little pig lived in a hut. A hut is a type of house. Tier Three words may be specific to a content area and are used in a limited manner. Like Tier One words they can be given a quick verbal explanation. Example: The pig lived in a hut with a veranda. A veranda a is a type of porch. The learner would interact with Tier Two words again in many texts.They are words that define the concept or main idea. In order to gain a deep understanding of these words direct instruction using many strategies is necessary. For a learner to gain full conceptual knowledge of a word and use it at multiple levels it must be viewed and interacted with repeatedly. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. was born on March 8, 1841 in Boston, Massachusetts, and was named for his famous father, the writer and physician. His keen intellect, humor, and ability to express himself helped Holmes direct American thought as a member of the United States Supreme Court for over 30 years. In content areas 3T words can become 2T words

Before VOCABULARY STRATEGIES WORD PARTS Morphemic Analysis WORD ASSOCIATIONS Illustrate & Associate CATEGORIZATION Semantic Features Map CONTEXT Read Alouds & Questioning CONCEPT Frayer Model Concept Definition Map Vocabulary plays a major role in improving comprehension. Choose two of the strategies to model on chart paper for staff as you present. Morphemic analysis ( Handout 5) – Sixty percent of science words come from Latin and Greek root words. MA requires students to take multisyllabic words and break them into meaningful parts. Students should discuss the meaning of each part and decide the meaning of the new word in its entirety. Then, students should use the word in their own sentence. Illustrate and Associate -This strategy is intended to help students learn vocabulary words through a visual association (picture), an antonym or a non example of the word, and a sentence that uses the vocabulary word to convey a personal meaning. This involves a more concrete connection to the vocabulary words, which can create more meaning than dictionary definitions. Semantic Features SF helps students discern a term’s meaning by comparing its features to those of other terms that fall into the same category or class. When students have completed a semantic feature matrix, they have a visual reminder of how certain terms are alike or different. Students find that the matrix provides a good summary of concept features. The Clunk Bug This strategy requires students to identify the vocabulary word and to search the sentence in which the word is located for clues to the word’s meaning. Students use the clues to construct their own definition of the word. The Frayer Model The Frayer model is a word categorization activity. Using this model, students analyze a word’s essential and nonessential attributes and also refine their understanding by choosing examples and non-examples of the concept. In order to understand completely what a concept is, one must also know what it isn’t. Concept Definition Maps These are graphic organizers that help students understand the essential attributes, qualities or characteristics of a word’s meaning. Students must describe what the concept is, as well as what it isn’t and cite examples of it. This process gives students a more thorough understanding of what the concept means, includes, and implies.

16 Author’s Purpose Reading with a Purpose
Before Reading with a Purpose Fundamental purposes for reading to learn To grasp a certain message To find important details To answer a specific question To evaluate what you are reading To apply what you are reading To be entertained Activity Look at the reading materials and decide how you would set the purpose for students. Studies show that readers who have misperceptions about a topic often overlook, misinterpret, or don’t remember text information , however incorrect that might be. (Anderson and Smith 1984; cf. Barton, 1997). Using prereading strategies can expose any misperceptions and then the teacher can address them before beginning to read text. Activity- Using the passages in their handouts have participants select one, read it through and decide how they could set the purpose for the reading. The types of responses that you would lift up would be to name or list the objective, pose guiding questions for reading this material. Author’s Purpose

17 During Make connections Check your understanding *Graphic Organizers
*Get the Gist *Reciprocal Teaching *Partner Reading *Use fix up strategies What am I doing to make meaning while I read? What did I just read? What will I learn next? In order to clarify understanding teachers need to plan for comprehension checks while students are engaged in text. Having students use a graphic organizer or note taking procedure as they read helps provide a focus. Using engagement activities such as: Get the Gist Reciprocal Teaching Partner Reading provide scaffolding for struggling readers. Providing students with tools for accessing difficult text can facilitate understanding of the concept.

18 AFTER THE READING Check for understanding; decide if the purpose was met Draw conclusion/evaluate information Apply learning “Comprehension is extracting and constructing meaning from text.” Improving Comprehension Instruction pg. 25. We have often thought of reading comprehension as only taking place after the text has been read. But in reality effective readers are making meaning of text before, during and after engaging in the act of reading print. The importance of involving students in learning activities at the end of text reading is to provide them with a system of or a support to cement the learning. When students are engaged in meaningful activities, such as connecting text to prior learning experiences or knowledge, making inferences or evaluating the information, then we have scaffolded their learning to higher levels of understanding in Bloom’s Taxonomy. What did I just learn? What were the main ideas? What do I need to do with this information?

19 What could this look like in my classroom?

20 Tea Party become familiar with phrasing and content
This is an interactive pre-reading strategy that frontloads students’ knowledge of text information and also allows them to become familiar with phrasing and content words. The strategy can be used with both narrative and expository texts.

21 Anticipation/Reaction Guide
This strategy is used to activate background knowledge before reading or doing and activity, stimulate interest and discussion during reading, compare before an after decisions, reverse misconceptions, and assess students’ application of new knowledge and/or skills. AG in Action

22 List-Sort-Label This is a form of semantic mapping. This strategy encourages students to improve vocabulary and categorization skills as well as organize concepts. Categorizing listed words, through sorting/grouping and labeling, helps students organize new concepts in relation to previously learned concepts. List Group Label in Action

23 Science and Social Studies!
Science Article Is this something you think you could do in your class room?

24 More activities to share…
The National Science Teachers Association supports the notion that inquiry science must be a basic in the daily curriculum of every elementary school student at every grade level. In the last decade, numerous reports have been published calling for reform in education. Each report has highlighted the importance of early experiences in science so that students develop problem-solving skills that empower them to participate in an increasingly scientific and technological world.

25 Elementary school students learn science best when:
instruction builds directly on the student's conceptual framework. content is organized on the basis of broad conceptual themes common to all science disciplines. mathematics and communication skills are an integral part of science instruction.

26 How can I integrate technology, literacy, science and social studies?
Kidspiration/Inspiration PowerPoint Photostory Glogster! Voice Threads Live Binders Writing Interactive Notebooks Science Notebooking SS Scrapbooking/Lapbooking

27 Is this the missing piece?
Text Features! Is this the missing piece?

28 Text Feature Instruction
Science and SS are the perfect areas to address text features and text structures Examples of Text Features With Definitions Explanations for How Text Features Help Readers Text Features Help Students Understand Nonfiction Text

29 Text Features Title Table of Contents Photographs Drawings Lists
Descriptions Directions Headings Captions near pictures Labels on pictures Different kinds of print (bold, italic, etc.) Drawings that compare things Diagrams Cross-section drawings/cut aways Glossary Index Questions/answers Charts Maps Graphs Bullets Information about the author’s research Other:

30 Teaching Text Features
Model, Model, Model Shared/Guided Reading, Interactive/Shared writing Text Feature Scavenger Hunt Students search through informational text with a partner looking for as many features as they can find. They record the feature and its purpose. Investigations Synthesize learning and use informational text features to teach the craft writing expository text.

31 Let’s take a look at some text features…What do you notice?

32 Text Features BB in 1st grade classroom

33 Your turn! Text Feature Search-Partner Activity
Using the list of Text Features in the table folder and a non-fiction text- identify 5 text features from the list and put a sticky note on the page with an explanation of how this feature helps the reader understand the information better countdown timer

34 Text Structures Description Sequence Compare and Contrast
Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Create foldables; then Pass out 5 sample paragraphs to partners- they work together to determine what type of text structure the paragraph follows and then underline, highlight signal words Then partners connect with other partners who have the same paragraph to compare responses

35 Text Structure Foldable

36 Text Structure Foldable
Label outside tabs: Inside tabs: • Description * jot down key words • Sequence to help identify type of • Compare & Contrast text structure • Cause & Effect * draw any visuals for • Problem & Solution clues








44 Why teach Text Structures?
“Understanding the expository text structures gives readers a better shot at determining important information when reading nonfiction… The text in standardized tests and traditional textbooks frequently falls into one or another of these text structures. If students know that to look for in terms of text structure, they grasp the meaning more easily.” - Nonfiction Matters, by Stephanie Harvey

45 Research on Informational Text
In a set of studies about teaching reading with information texts in first grades, Nell Duke (2000) described experiences offered to children in 20 first-grade classrooms selected from very low and very high socio-economic-status school districts. She found a scarcity of informational texts in these classrooms (particularly the low socio-economic status schools). There were relatively few informational texts included in classroom libraries and on classroom walls and other surfaces. The most startling finding was children in low socioeconomic classrooms had access to and read in information trade books about 3.6 minutes per day on average. Duke, N. K. (2000). For the rich it’s richer: print experiences and environments offered to children in very low- and very high-socioeconomic status first-grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 37, Duke, N. K. (2000). 3.6 minutes per day: The scarcity of informational texts in first grade. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(2),

46 Start with how things are same or similar. Then add more as needed.
Science Frames Start with how things are same or similar. Then add more as needed. The ____ and the ___ are the same because they both______. In addition, they______________. They are different because the ____________________, but the ____________________. Also, the____________________ but ______________________ Explain how they are different. You can compare the same property or characteristic in the same sentence. These science frames are used to help students do a compare and contrast from a reading. Story frames are an initial level of scaffolding for students who have limited language usage or difficulty organizing their thinking in writing. Story frames should be used as a transitional strategy as students build the organizational pattern in their own words. Use the Story Map and discuss how the focus changes if the topic is social studies, science or literature Betsy Rupp Fulwiler, K-5 inquiry Based Science

47 Let’s look at a few Text Structure Examples
Sequence Goose bumps make me shiver. First I get cold. Then I shake all over. Description Goose bumps make me shiver. I get little bumps on my skin. They look like sesame seeds. Compare and Contrast Some people get goose bumps from fear. Others get goose bumps when they are cold. Cause and Effect Goose bumps make me shiver. When the temperature drops below 45 degrees , my skin crinkles into goose bumps. Problem and Solution Goose bumps make me shiver. But they disappear as soon as I cover up with a jacket or blanket.

48 Let’s give it a try… Your turn!
Working with a partner, you will use the following basic sentence and develop text structure example sentences similar to the ones we just reviewed on the previous slide. Your turn! The first day of school is always an interesting day. Sequence Description Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Online Timer

49 Strategy Groups In your group folder, find an activity titled: Teaching Reading in a Content Area (small group activity) Your group will need a piece of chart paper and markers Let’s take a look at your assignment…. Online Stopwatch

50 Now it is your turn to add the last piece…
Put the ideas, activities, strategies shared today in your classroom instruction.

51 Thanks for coming today and enjoy your summer!
Please us with any questions or comments: Lora Drum Mia Johnson

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