The Big6 Developed by educators Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz, Big6 is a problem solving method and is the most widely-known and widely-used approach to teaching information and technology skills in the world.Developed by educators Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz, Big6 is a problem solving method and is the most widely-known and widely-used approach to teaching information and technology skills in the world. Big6 is not an add on – it should be woven into existing classroom instruction.Big6 is not an add on – it should be woven into existing classroom instruction. It will aide in preparing students to be lifelong learners and problem solvers.It will aide in preparing students to be lifelong learners and problem solvers. Mrs Black
The Big6 Big6 can be used to solve problems everywhere @ school @ home @ work
The Big6 Number Connecting Exercise Use a pen to connect the numbers in order, beginning with number one, then two, then three, and so on. You should work as fast as you can because your goal is to connect as many numbers as possible.Use a pen to connect the numbers in order, beginning with number one, then two, then three, and so on. You should work as fast as you can because your goal is to connect as many numbers as possible. –Begin with number one and you cannot skip any numbers. Thus you cannot connect 10 to 11 until you have already connected the previous 9. –Lines can cross. There will not be a picture of anything. You will have 30 seconds per page. You will be told when time is up.You will have 30 seconds per page. You will be told when time is up.
Information Age Problems Information access, overload, qualityInformation access, overload, quality Gaining essential information knowledge and skillsGaining essential information knowledge and skills Providing meaningful learning opportunitiesProviding meaningful learning opportunities Providing opportunity for our children to succeed at the highest possible levels.Providing opportunity for our children to succeed at the highest possible levels.
More than 2/3 of teens said within the last year that they use the Internet as their major resource when doing a big project for school... In a study of 500 sites used by Colorado high school students to do research, only 27% of the sites were judged to be reliable for academic research!
New web-search formulas have huge implications for students and society http://www.eschoolnews.com/2011/08/10/new -web-search-formulas-have-huge- implications-for-students-and-society/
Solutions? Speed things up? Pack in more and more content? Add more technology? Discourage web use? Pre-select resources? Filtering?
Alternative Solutions To have students use information and technology effectively and efficiently for success in school, work, and their personal lives. To focus on process as well as content. For students to be lifelong learners and independent thinkers.
Information Literacy To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. American Library Association, 1989
Information Literacy Information literacy, the ability to locate, process and use information effectively, equips individuals to take advantage of the opportunities inherent in the global information society. Assoc. for Supervision and Curriculum Dev., 1991
How do we address these issues? Help students become discriminating users of informationHelp students become discriminating users of information Help students use essential information and technology skills in contextHelp students use essential information and technology skills in context Use The Big6 and The Super3 informational problem-solving methodsUse The Big6 and The Super3 informational problem-solving methods Mrs Gladden
What is Big6 and Super3? An informational problem-solving and decision making model which utilizes a systematic process to find, use, apply and evaluate information for specific needs and tasks.
Super3 and Big6 Skills 1.Task Definition 2.Info Seeking Strategies 3.Location and Access 4.Use of Information 5.Synthesis 6.Evaluation 1.Plan 2.Do 3.Review
Task Definition 1.1 Define the information problem 1.2 Identify information needed (to solve the information problem) What is the task? What types of information do I need? What am I doing? What is the assignment? How much time will be given? What is required? What am I supposed to do? What will it look like if I do a really good job?
Information Seeking Strategies 2.1 Determine all possible sources (brainstorm) 2.2 Select the best sources What are possible sources? Which are the best? What will have the answers? What can I use to find what I need?
Location and Access 3.1 Locate sources (intellectually and physically) 3.2 Find information within sources Where is each source? Where is the information in each source? Where can I find the resources? Where can I find what I need?
Use of Information 4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch) 4.2 Extract relevant information How can I best use each source? What information in each source is useful? How will I organize my information? What information can I use?
Synthesis 5.1 Organize from multiple sources 5.2 Present the information How can I organize all the information? How can I present the result? What will I make? What can I make to finish the job?
Evaluation 6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness) 6.2 Judge the process (efficiency) Is the task completed? How can I do things better? Did I do a good job? How will I know if I did my job well?
Plan – (Beginning) When students get an assignment or a task, BEFORE they start doing anything, they should think- What am I supposed to do? What will it look like if I do a really good job? What do I need to find out to do the job? Big6 steps – Task Definition & Information Seeking Strategies
Do – (Middle) In the middle the students DO the activity. This is where they read, view, tell, make a picture, etc. Big6 steps – Location and Access & Use of Information & Synthesis
Review – (End) Before finishing the product and turning it in students should stop and think – Is this done? Did I do what I was supposed to do? Do I feel OK about this? Should I do something else before I turn it in? Big6 steps – Synthesis & Evaluation
Developing Big6 Understandings Indicate which of the Big6 skills students are using when they perform each of the following activities: – Chooses between an encyclopedia and a magazine for information on the political situation in the Middle East. Information Seeking Strategies – Creates a weekly classroom newsletter about freedom movements in the world. Synthesis – Interviews a long-time community resident about local history. Use of Information Mrs Black
Developing Big6 Understandings – Assesses the presentations of other students Evaluation – Uses appropriate commands in World Book Online Location and Access – Selects a specific topic for a science fair project Task Definition
Developing Big6 Understandings Big6 Skills Identification Exercise Use the Big6 Skills as headings Place the student activities under the appropriate Big6 Skill Mrs Sherrill
Task Definition Write a thesis statement Students select an area of the US as the focus of its report. The students and teacher brainstorm to identify some examples that live in a nearby area. Students may use one from this list but must decide on two others on their own. Joe realizes that the task involves writing a coherent and organized essay with a specific comparison between his life and Bucks life. Students are working in groups to make a test for others.
Information Seeking Strategies Brainstorm possible sources of information and decide to use magazines, books, their parents, and the World Wide Web. Students decide that a visit to a local nature center would be helpful. Joe determines that it will be necessary to use a copy of The Call of the Wild, but a critical analysis would also help. The Media Coordinator leads the students to the music books.
Location & Access Find word definitions in a dictionary. Group three uses the online catalog to find books while group four is using the periodical index. Joe scans through the book to find the section where Buck first hears the call of the wild. The Media Coordinator helps the students find the books and magazines about animals in the Media Center.
Use of Information Answer questions using a textbook. Print out a magazine article. Joe marks appropriate sections in the book with paper clips then enters relevant quotations in a WP document. The Media Coordinator shows students how to write notes about their animals on index cards. Students take notes from the dictionary before writing the definition in his or her own words.
Synthesis Uses PowerPoint to create a multimedia show about holiday celebrations in other cultures. Students deliver its report in the form of a TV show. Joe prepares a chart of events in his life and in Bucks life, and then uses WP to write and print his essay. Students draw pictures of the animals with crayons or paint while other students paste pictures from old magazines.
Evaluation Reflects on personal information skills that need improving. Evaluates the effectiveness of different specific media (political ads, car commercials, video vs audio, etc) Students discuss which web sites were useful and why. A student earned an A on his essay because he referred to specific examples in the book. The teacher debriefs with the class. What was the most difficult part of the assignment? The class discusses which of the tests were hard and why.
Developing Big6 Understandings Nutrition Poster Exercise – Elementary Using the curriculum context list and explain one or two activities for each Big6 Skill. Mrs Black
Nutrition Poster Exercise Big6 SkillStudent Activities Task Definition *Brainstorm food * Information Seeking Strategies *books, grocery stores, food ads, home, cafeteria, textbooks * Location & Access *Destiny, Internet, Public Library * Use of Information *Interview cafeteria staff, print, take notes * Synthesis *Create poster, record what they eat for one day * Evaluation*Display posters, discuss what foods they liked, discuss what they learned *
Developing Big6 Understandings Curriculum Integration Exercise Create a typical, integrated curriculum situation. Describe one or two activities that relate to each Big6 Skill
Themes of the Big6 The Big6 process can be applied in all subjects, with students of all ages, and across all grade levels (K-20).The Big6 process can be applied in all subjects, with students of all ages, and across all grade levels (K-20). The Big6 is adaptable and flexible; it can be applied to any information situation.The Big6 is adaptable and flexible; it can be applied to any information situation. Technology skills take on meaning within the Big6 process.Technology skills take on meaning within the Big6 process. Using the Big6 is not always a linear, step-by-step process.Using the Big6 is not always a linear, step-by-step process. The Big6 process is necessary and sufficient for solving problems and completing tasks.The Big6 process is necessary and sufficient for solving problems and completing tasks. The Big6 is an ideal approach for integrating information literacy learning with all subject area curricula at all grade levels.The Big6 is an ideal approach for integrating information literacy learning with all subject area curricula at all grade levels. Mrs Sherrill
Better Understanding of Each Big6 Skill Mrs Black
Task Definition 1.1 Define the information problem 1.2 Identify information needed (to solve the information problem) Strategy: List questions to answer about your project. (who, what, when, where, which, why, and how)
Consider a student working on a writing project: How is global warming affecting the Earth? Imagine if the student does an excellent job on all stages of the Big6 except for Task Definition. What might be the possible impact on the quality of the project? What evidence might indicate this problem and impact?
Essential Question What is an Essential Question? http://questioning.org/mar05/essential.html Mrs Sherrill
Types of Questions Fact Questions Usually these questions start with the words Who… What… Where… When… Some examples of Fact Questions are: Who is the president of the United States? What do sea turtles eat? Where is the Pecos River? When were most fossils formed in this area? Why Questions Usually these questions start with the words Why… How… In what ways… Some examples of Why Questions are: How do insects differ from reptiles? How do plants use the sun? Why do you need to learn to use a map? Why should you eat from the food pyramid? In what ways do scientists think dinosaurs became extinct? In what ways are life cycles of the chicken and frog similar?
Types of Questions Idea Questions Usually these questions start with the words Imagine… Suppose… Predict… If…, then… How might… Can you create… What are some possible consequences… Some examples of Idea Questions are: Imagine that you could travel to another planet. Can you tell about that planet and why you would like to go? Suppose that you lived in Mexico. Can you tell about which holiday you would enjoy the most? If (name a European explorer) came back today, what would he think about the changes? How might people from Alaska adapt to life in a southern state such as Florida? What are some possible consequences if people do not recycle? Can you create a new animal that has some of the characteristics of a mammal, a fish, a reptile, an amphibian and a bird? How might it live in our habitat?
Types of Questions Opinion Questions Usually these questions start with the words Defend… Judge… Justify… What do you think about… What is your opinion about… Some examples of Opinion Questions are: What do you think about native people destroying the rain forest so they can farm? How do you feel about the different styles of music we have studied? What is your opinion about having rules in the cafeteria during lunch? Justify your opinion. (Justify means to tell why you think so.)
Plan, Plan, Plan Collaborate / Communicate – with Media Coordinator, Art, Music, Drama, PE – through grade level meetings, email, casual conversation. Activities Mrs Black
Activities Rubric / Evaluation. Provide students with a checklist at the beginning instead of at the end.
Activities Provide Task / Assignment. Students could be given the task or choose from a list of tasks. Brainstorm Topic. As a class or group, develop a list of topics. Complete a K-W-L Chart. It will help identify the information that is needed. Concept Mapping. Students can use to refine their inquiry in terms appropriate to the assignment. They may try to tackle a subject that is too broad or too narrow. Graphic Organizers. Kidspiration / Inspiration software.
Memory Minder Purpose: The purpose of the Memory Minder tool is to aid students in remembering – before they go home at the end of the school day – what information or materials they need to complete their homework. http://www.big6.com/category/1-0-task-definition/ Mrs Stilwell
Exercise At your table, answer the following questions: What would you like on a Banoak Memory Minder? What title would be on our Memory Minder? Where would you like this to be – Poster in the classroom, label on student folder or materials, etc.
Information Seeking Strategies 2.1 Determine all possible sources (brainstorm) 2.2 Select the best sources Strategy Use appropriate sources to gather information about your topic.
Possible Resources Provide students with Resource options. – Books – Encyclopedia – Atlas – Almanac – Magazine (Print and online) – Brochure – Interview – World Wide Web – Others -
Evaluating Websites Because anyone can publish on the world wide web, it is critically important that students learn to evaluate web sites for authority, accuracy, relevance, currency, and objectivity.
Evaluating Websites Lets look at: http://www.allaboutexplorers.com Resources to use: http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/cmis/eval/curriculum/ict/webev al/eval12.htm http://www3.widener.edu/Academics/Libraries/Wolfgram_Memorial_ Library/Evaluate_Web_Pages/659/ http://lib.nmsu.edu/instruction/evalsugg.html http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.ht ml http://www.ithaca.edu/library/training/think.html http://kathyschrock.net/slideshows/abceval/frame0001.htm http://openc.k12.or.us/citeintro/secondary/evaluate/index.html
Evaluating Websites Kathy Schrock - http://kathyschrock.net/abceval/5ws.pdfhttp://kathyschrock.net/abceval/5ws.pdf 5 Ws of Website Evaluation – WHO - Who wrote the pages and are they an expert? Is a biography of the author included? How can I find out more about the author? WHAT - What does the author say is the purpose of the site? What else might the author have in mind for the site? What makes the site easy to use? What information is included and does this information differ from other sites?
Evaluating Websites WHEN - When was the site created? When was the site last updated? WHERE - Where does the information come from? Where can I look to find out more about the sponsor of the site? WHY - Why is this information useful for my purpose? Why should I use this information? Why is this page better than another?
World Wide Web Resources World Book Online – www.worldbookonline.comwww.worldbookonline.com NC WiseOwl – www.ncwiseowl.orgwww.ncwiseowl.org LearnNC – www.Learnnc.orgwww.Learnnc.org Kathy Schrock - http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/ http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/ KidsClick - http://www.kidsclick.org/http://www.kidsclick.org/ Google Directory - http://directory.google.com/http://directory.google.com/ Librarians Internet Index - http://lii.org/http://lii.org/ Homework Center - http://www.multcolib.org/homework/ http://www.multcolib.org/homework/ Others –
Exercise Use the Catawba County Schools Website Evaluation Form to evaluate http://zapatopi.net/treeoctopus/ website. http://zapatopi.net/treeoctopus/ Google Search for Martin Luther King, Jr. – http://www.martinlutherking.org
Location and Access 3.1 Locate sources (intellectually and physically) 3.2 Find information within sources Strategy Use the index and table of contents to determine if the source has helpful information. Skim and scan. Read bold headings, and captions.
Activities Expose students to a variety of resources and teach them how to know when to use them. (Handout) Expose students to the Index and Table of Contents of resources. Teach students to use Destiny to find available book resources. Help students improve their keyword searching skills. (Boolean searching – and / or / + / - / / etc) (http://www.internettutorials.net/boolean.asp)http://www.internettutorials.net/boolean.asp Search Strategies - http://openc.k12.or.us/citeintro/secondary/strategies/str at02.html http://openc.k12.or.us/citeintro/secondary/strategies/str at02.html
Exercise *Besides the World Wide Web and books, where can you locate additional resources? *In your group, complete the handout – What Source Would You Use.
What Source Would You Use? ____ to find statistics on the number of working mothers with children under the age of five ____ to locate an in-depth article about the level of absenteeism among working mothers with children under the age of five ____ to find out information about the day care center that XYZ corporation opened in your home town ____ to learn about presentations offered at the National Association for Family Child Care Conference in July 2001 ____ to find a current analysis of how working mothers in the 21st century are coping with child care issues ____ to find out how much families are paying for child care ____ to read a detailed analysis of child-care options in the workplace ____ to learn about companies that are offering child care at the workplace
Use of Information 4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch) 4.2 Extract relevant information Strategy Read, view and listen. Mind-mapping and notetaking.
Activities Teach students to summarize information in notes – Cornell Notes, Index Cards, data chart or T-Chart (What I found & Where I found it) Use a folder with envelopes Fact Frenzy Activity - http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/stu dent_material.asp?id=13 http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/stu dent_material.asp?id=13
Activities Helpful hints: – Carefully read, view or listen for important information – Dont try to write down everything. Use lists or short phrases. Be sure to use your own words. – Pick out main points, key phrases and only a few details. Notes do note need to be complete sentences. – Do I have enough information – Write down citation information for each source
Activities Teach students the difference between summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting. http://www.ohio.edu/linguistics/info/quoting. html http://www.ohio.edu/linguistics/info/quoting. html Research Building Blocks - http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesso n_view.asp?id=148 http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesso n_view.asp?id=148 Use a citation template so students can document sources.
Exercise At your table, talk about ways you teach students to use information.
Synthesis 5.1 Organize from multiple sources 5.2 Present the information Strategy Organize project, complete a rough draft.
Activities Organize notes to complete project – Outline (Kidspiration) or Write key points in a list. (http://openc.k12.or.us/citeintro/secondary/organize/ind ex.html)http://openc.k12.or.us/citeintro/secondary/organize/ind ex.html Encourage the development of critical thinking skills in your Internet research projects. Promote Project Based Learning activities. Encourage activities that will discourage Plagiarism (http://www.doug-johnson.com/dougwri/plagiarism- proofing-assignments.html) or (http://www.ncwiseowl.org/it/plagiarism/default.htm)http://www.doug-johnson.com/dougwri/plagiarism- proofing-assignments.htmlhttp://www.ncwiseowl.org/it/plagiarism/default.htm (http://www.plagiarism.org/(http://www.plagiarism.org/ )
Research Without Copying http://www.nancypolette.com/home.asp
Activities Teach students to give credit by citing sources. Use K-6 citation guidelines.
Exercise Use the sticky notes at your table to list / explain examples of Synthesis activities.
Evaluation 6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness) 6.2 Judge the process (efficiency) Strategy Compare / evaluate project to the given task
Activities Use evaluation tools to analyze project – http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/ass ess.html http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/ass ess.html – http://ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html http://ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html – http://rubistar.4teachers.org/ http://rubistar.4teachers.org/ – http://www.rubrics4teachers.com/ http://www.rubrics4teachers.com/ Provide with students with an evaluation check sheet / rubric before submitting project. It is also good to give this to students when they begin the project. Give students an opportunity to share feelings of the project. What was good? How could it be improved? How could the entire process be changed?
Homework Complete the Curriculum Integration Worksheet with a lesson that you have already completed or plan to conduct. Curriculum Context will be the lesson, project, assignment, etc. Fill in the student activities for each Big6 skill Fill in corresponding curriculum standards Bring to next training on Monday, November 16th
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