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The Big Six Theory Information Literacy

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1 The Big Six Theory Information Literacy
By Lori Carter

2 Big Six Theory A model formulated by Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz that can be used by students to guide their thinking and research activities and by teachers to guide their planning and implementation of classroom instructional activities. Eisenberg and Berkowitz (1990)

3 What is the "Big Six Theory?”
A model that consists of six components designed by Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz. It incorporate skills in a systematic approach to information problem-solving that rely on critical thinking skills. A complete library and curriculum

4 How Is It Different? It is intended to foster the acquisition of research problem-solving and metacognition skills through linking information literacy skills and critical thinking skills together. It provides problem -solving strategies that gives the student the ability to use critical thinking skills and manipulate information into a meaningful solution.

5 Six Components Task Definition Information Seeking Strategies
Location and Access Use of Information Synthesis Evaluation

6 Task Definition Focus Determine exactly what the information problem is and determine the specific information needs related to the problem

7 Task Definition Cont What is the problem to be solved?
What information is needed in order to solve the problem? What is required in an assignment What is the order of tasks and the timeline required?

8 Examples Create a flowchart of the problem-solving process
Compare the approach taken to complete daily assignments with the Big6 Skills approach List some of the opportunities to use information problem solving

9 Information Seeking Strategies Search Plan
Involves making decisions and selecting sources appropriate to the defined task. Search Plan How do I find Out?

10 Information Seeking Strategies Cont.
What are all possible sources of information? What are the best of all the possibilities? What are alternative methods of acquiring information?

11 Examples Brainstorm what sources should be used.
Decide what References sources in the library are likely to provide information. Inventory all the computer resources in the school. List where to find the literary criticism information.

12 Location and Access Students must find individual resources such as books, magazines, reference materials, and Web sites, but also find the information within each source through the use of tables of contents, indexes, and other resource-specific tools. They must engage each source (read, view or listen) and extract specific information from it through the application of note taking, and highlighting.

13 Location and Access What Have I Got?
Where are these resources? Where is the information within each source?

14 Examples Get a magazine article from the library, and write down the relevant information. Locate sources (intellectually and physically). Use a periodical index to locate information.

15 Use of Information What is Important
Student must be able to read, view, listen or interact with the information and decide what is valuable for their assignment. They must extract information they need using notes, copies, or citations.

16 Examples View a videotape and outline major points.
Examine the glossary in the back of the book to see if a term is included, if so write it down. Engage the information in source (read it, view it, hear it). Extract information from a source.

17 Synthesis Restructuring of information into a new or different format to meet the requirements of the task. Relying on specific facts Using a variety of media or presentation formats and the effective communication of abstract ideas.

18 Synthesis Cont Produce
How does the information from all the sources fit together? How is the information best presented? Who wants to (audience)?

19 Examples Make an outline (using information from multiple sources) for a report. Prepare a video production of school Organize information from multiple sources. a. create a database for an assignment in Social Studies. b. Put note cards (from multiple sources) in logical order

20 Evaluation Reflect Determines how effectively and efficiently the information problem-solving process was conducted. What have I Learned? How well did I perform?

21 Evaluation Cont. Was the information problem solved?
Was the information need met? Was the decision made? Does the product satisfy the requirements as originally defined? What set of criteria can you use to make judgments?

22 Examples Judge the product effectiveness.
Judge the efficiency of the information problem-solving process. Determine the degree to which note taking techniques are working. State what you would do differently next time.

23 Big Six Theory Appraisal
When students are provided metacognitive support during information problem-solving activities, they are able to manage complex tasks and subject matter content.

24 Cont. Big6 provides a focus to student research and writing activities that appear to enhance the level of engagement the students have with both the content and writing activities Allows students to manage complex cognitive tasks and processes.

25 Cont. Utilization of scaffolding provides the students with time management and the resources used within a multimedia database in an efficient manner. Big Six model using metacognitive strategies and knowledge heightens students self-efficacy

26 Cont. With appropriate support students can succeed at complex, learner-centered, research-oriented tasks. Big6 support students in metacognitive and knowledge-management tasks

27 Lesson / Evaluation Lesson Title:
Staff and Students Learn About the Big6, Big6 eNewsletter (Grade 9) Lesson Link:

28 Evaluation The Three Key Ingredients Identified for success:
Staff and students are introduced to model simultaneously as an introduction lesson during orientation at the onset of high school (freshmen) Exposure to content/Learn the process Given experiential opportunities to explore and experience the model.

29 Cont. Students are a part of the process
Students have a choice in choosing a tool or template to work with for the project. Students are Engaged Students are Motivated Students produce a final product

30 Cont. The original goal of the model at Abington High School exceeded the administrator expectations through its effectiveness and efficiency. It was extended to all staff in Professional Development Workshop. Feedback extremely positive from all participants.

31 Cont. Fosters learning communities outside the traditional classroom setting. A model that meets all the diverse learning styles and abilities in a setting. A great tool to accommodate students with learning disabilities. Color coded templates –ADHD/MR Information in small chunks for processing (each stage)

32 Bibliography 1990. Information Problem Solving: The Big Six skills approach to library & information skills instruction. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. 1995. The six study habits of highly effective students: Using the Big Six to link parents, students, and homework. School Library Journal 41, no. 8: 22–25.

33 Bibliography Cont. 1999. Interview with Scott Hopsicer—Big6 success story! Big6 Newsletter 2, no. 3: 1, 4, 6–7, 14–15. Eisenberg, M., and R. Berkowitz Curriculum initiative: an agenda and strategy for library media programs. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex

34 The End Big Six Theory

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