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Barcelona, September 14, 20091 SCIENTIFIC OUTPUT OF SINGLE APERTURE IMAGING OF EXOPLANETS Raffaele Gratton, INAF-OAPD, I Anthony Boccaletti, LESIA-OAPM,

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Presentation on theme: "Barcelona, September 14, 20091 SCIENTIFIC OUTPUT OF SINGLE APERTURE IMAGING OF EXOPLANETS Raffaele Gratton, INAF-OAPD, I Anthony Boccaletti, LESIA-OAPM,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Barcelona, September 14, SCIENTIFIC OUTPUT OF SINGLE APERTURE IMAGING OF EXOPLANETS Raffaele Gratton, INAF-OAPD, I Anthony Boccaletti, LESIA-OAPM, F Mariangela Bonavita, INAF-OAPD, I Silvano Desidera, INAF-OAPD, I Markus Kasper, ESO, D Florian Kerber, ESO, D

2 Barcelona, September 14, Outline Introduction: direct imaging of planets, no longer a dream! What planets can be observed in the near-mid term Statistics: –Mass distribution –Orbits and system parameters Spectroscopy and atmosphere composition Synergies with other techniques dynamical masses –Radial velocities –Astrometry –Transits

3 Barcelona, September 14, No longer a dream ! 2M12075 M J 46 AU GQ Lup17 M J 100 AU AB Pic14 M J 248 AU CHRX7312 M J 210 AU HN Peg16 M J 795 AU DH Tau12 M J 330 AU RSX M J 330 AU Detection was made possible because : - small mass ratios (contrast is lower) - young ages (planet is brighter) - large physical / angular separations

4 Barcelona, September 14, Fomalhaut< 3 M J 120 AU HR8799 b7 M J 68 AU HR8799 c10 M J 38 AU HR8799 d10 M J 24 AU

5 Barcelona, September 14, Problematic Planets are faint and close … = 1 milliard 10 6 = 1 million Reflected lightThermal emission

6 Barcelona, September 14, Ground based 8m telescopes (2011-) –Hi-Ciao (Subaru) –SPHERE (VLT) –GPI (Gemini) (http://gpi.berkeley.edu/) JWST (2014-) –<5 μm: NIRCAM/TFI (http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/nircam/) –>5 μm: MIRI (http://www.roe.ac.uk/ukatc/consortium/miri/index.html) 1.5 m class space coronagraphs (??) –PECO: Guyon et al. 2008, SPIE, 7010, 70101Y –EPIC: Clampin et al. 2006, SPIE, 6265, 62651B; Lyon et al. 2008, SPIE, 7010, –ACCESS: Trauger et al. 2008, SPIE, 7010, –SEE-COAST: ELT Instruments (>2018-) –NIR: EPICS (E-ELT), PFI (TMT), HRCAM (GMT) –MIR: METIS (E-ELT: Brandl et al. 2008, SPIE ), MIRES (TMT), MIISE (GMT) Single aperture planet imagers of the next future

7 Barcelona, September 14, Niches: Contrast, Wavelength, IWA YearContrastWavelength (μm) IWA (arcsec) Ground based 8m JWST –NIRCAM MIRI m Space Coronagraphs ? ELTs – EPICS (NIR) METIS (MIR) >

8 Observable planets: methodology - inputs STELLAR PARAMETERS (M Star (M sun ), d (pc), Age (Myr), etc.) from two samples of real stars: Young sample (Age < 500 Myrs, d<100 pc), ~1200 stars Nearby sample (d < 20 pc) ~600 stars PLANET PARAMETERS: M p sini (M J ) and P (days) randomly generated using the distributions from Cumming et al. 2008, extrapolated up to periods corresponding to a = 40 AU (for M Star = 1 M sun ) and scaled with the stellar mass 0.0 < e < 0.6 generated following the observed RV distribution All the orbital elements (including inclination), randomly generated using uniform distributions MONTE-CARLO SIMULATION TOOL: MESS (Multi-purpose Exo-planet Simulation System) see Bonavita et al.(2009) in prep. DETECTION LIMIT CURVES: Direct Imaging (SPHERE, GPI, EPICS, METIS, JWST, Space Coronagraphs) Radial velocity (HARPS, EXPRESSO, CODEX) Astrometry (GAIA)

9 Observable planets: methodology - outputs DERIVED PLANET PARAMETERS: Semi-major axis (AU) and projected separation (arcsec) evaluated assuming Distance and Mass of each star Radius (R J ) estimated following the approach of Fortney et al. (2007) T eff (K) estimated using the models by Sudarsky et al. (2001) Intrinsic luminosity obtained using the models by Baraffe et al. (2003) Reflected luminosity in visible and NEAR-IR (V, H, K, L Band) obtained scaling the Jupiter luminosity with planet semi-major axis and radius Reflected luminosity in MID-IR (λ C = 11.4 μm) obtained assuming a black body emission at T = T eff and λ = λ C Radial Velocity Semi-amplitude (m/s) Astrometric Signature (mas)

10 SYNTHETIC PLANET POPULATION: 5 planets per star (mass>0.7 M Earth ), randomly extracted from a set of combinations of planet parameters CHARACTERISTICS OF DETECTABLE PLANETS Contrast vs projected separation Mass vs Semi-major Axis Radial velocity signal (K(RV)) vs Period Astrometric Signature vs Period

11 Barcelona, September 14, Planets observable with Sphere and GPI (2011-) Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs) Tens of young giant planets at rather large separations

12 Barcelona, September 14, Planets observable with JWST- MIRI (2014-) Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs) Tens of young giant planets at large separations But care of disks!

13 Barcelona, September 14, Planets observable with E-ELT+EPICS (2020-) Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs) Many giant planets (both young and old) Tens of Neptune-like planets A few rocky planets

14 Barcelona, September 14, Planets observable with ~1.5 m dedicated space telescopes (?-) Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs) Many giant planets (both young and old) Tens of Neptune-like planets A few rocky planets

15 Barcelona, September 14, Planets observable with E-ELT+METIS (2020-) Many young and a few old giant planets at rather large separations Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs)

16 Barcelona, September 14, Mass/semimajor axis distribution of detectable planets: Present Nearby stars (<20 pc) CURRENT STATUS

17 Barcelona, September 14, Mass/semimajor axis distribution of detectable planets: Young stars (< yrs) Nearby stars (<20 pc)

18 Barcelona, September 14, Mass/semimajor axis distribution of detectable planets: Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (<10 8 yrs)

19 Barcelona, September 14, Mass/semimajor axis distribution of detectable planets: >2018- Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs)

20 Barcelona, September 14, Mass/semimajor axis distribution of detectable planets: ?? Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs)

21 Barcelona, September 14, Mass/semimajor axis distribution of detectable planets: >2018 Nearby stars (<20 pc) Young stars (< yrs)

22 Barcelona, September 14, Planets in the habitable zone:

23 Barcelona, September 14, Planets in the habitable zone: >2018

24 Barcelona, September 14, Planets in the habitable zone: >2018

25 Barcelona, September 14, Summary YearYoung Giant Planets Old Giant Planets NeptunesRocky Planets Habitable Planets Ground based 8m tensfew JWST2014- tensfew 1.5m Space Coronagraphs ? tens few?? ELTs>2018- hundreds tensfew??

26 Barcelona, September 14, Atmospheric composition

27 Barcelona, September 14, Visible: Space Coronagraphs H20H20 H3+H3+ H2SH2S C2H2C2H2 PH C0 C NH 3 CH 4 Wavelength (μm)

28 Barcelona, September 14, NIR: Sphere, GPI, NIRCAM, EPICS H20H20 H3+H3+ H2SH2S C2H2C2H2 PH C0 C NH 3 CH 4 Wavelength (μm)

29 Barcelona, September 14, MIR: MIRI, METIS H20H20 H3+H3+ H2SH2S C2H2C2H2 PH C0 C NH 3 CH 4 Wavelength (μm)

30 m spectrum of an isolated 2 M J planet (Burrows et al.2003, ApJ 596, 587) vs Visible (Space Coronagraphs)

31 m spectrum of an isolated 2 M J planet (Burrows et al.2003, ApJ 596, 587) vs NIR (Sphere, GPI, NIRCAM, EPICS)

32 m spectrum of an isolated 2 M J planet (Burrows et al.2003, ApJ 596, 587) vs MIR (MIRI, METIS)

33 Barcelona, September 14, Spectroscopic characterization Spectra at higher resolution than in standard set-up for planet detection will allow a more detailed characterization (for planets detected with high enough S/N) Some science goals: identification of spectral features, determination of physical parameters (temperature, gravity, chemical composition), cloud process and their variation with time (e.g. for planets in eccentric orbits) R=3000, R=20000 considered See Poster by Claudi et al.

34 Barcelona, September 14, Medium resolution McLean+2007

35 Barcelona, September 14, High resolution (R=20000) R=20000 J band spectrum of a T4.5 BD (Mc Lean+2007), many spectral lines available Identified H2O lines marked

36 Barcelona, September 14, Planet radial velocity Earth semi-amplitude: 30 km/s Useful to constrain the planetary orbit if only visual measurements available, planet-star mass ratio even based on small time baseline Detection of binary planets, if any Several lines at high resolution, resolved sky lines to be used as wavelength reference.

37 Barcelona, September 14, Planet rotational velocity Jupiter: V rot :12.6 km/s, Saturn: 9.9 km/s, Neptune: 2.7 km/s Field T dwarfs typically rotate faster (30-50 km/s: McLean et al., Zapaterio Osorio et al. ) R=20,000 corresponds to FWHM=15 km/s, R=3000 to 100 km/s Possibility of measuring rotational velocity similar to that of Jupiter Very interesting if coupled with photometric rotational modulation ( Planet radius independent of luminosity; inclination of rotational axis over orbital plane)

38 Barcelona, September 14, Estimate of the number and type of accessible targets using Monte Carlo simulation (R=3000, R=20000) R=3,000 hundreds R=20,000 tens Number of targets for EPICS

39 Barcelona, September 14, Synergies with radial velocities Planets already discovered from RVs Very important: planet mass independent of model assumptions!

40 Barcelona, September 14, Synergies with radial velocities Planets already discovered from RVs Very important: planet mass independent of model assumptions!

41 Barcelona, September 14, RV signal of detectable planets

42 Barcelona, September 14, RV signal of detectable planets

43 Barcelona, September 14, RV signal of detectable planets

44 Barcelona, September 14, RV signal of detectable planets

45 Barcelona, September 14, Astrometric signal of detectable planets SIM (Beichman et al. 2008)

46 Barcelona, September 14, Astrometric signal of detectable planets SIM (Beichman et al. 2008)

47 Barcelona, September 14, Astrometric signal of detectable planets SIM (Beichman et al. 2008)

48 Barcelona, September 14, Astrometric signal of detectable planets SIM (Beichman et al. 2008)

49 Barcelona, September 14, Potential overlap with PLATO PLATO: ESA Cosmic Vison proposed mission for the search of transiting planets Planets down to about 10 M Earth around K and M dwarfs with V= (bright end of PLATO) can be detected also with EPICS For K dwarfs, planets in the habitable zone are detectable Availability of planet spectrum from EPICS and planet radius from PLATO will be relevant for the physical study of the planets. For G and F stars (and K and M dwarfs as well) planets at separation larger than that accessible to PLATO can be detected, allowing to study the outer planetary system of PLATO targets See talk by Claudi et al.


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