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Directly Imaging and Characterizing Extrasolar Planets at High Contrast Thayne Currie (U. Toronto, NAOJ Aug 2014!) Adam Burrows (Princeton), Nikku Madhusudhan.

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Presentation on theme: "Directly Imaging and Characterizing Extrasolar Planets at High Contrast Thayne Currie (U. Toronto, NAOJ Aug 2014!) Adam Burrows (Princeton), Nikku Madhusudhan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Directly Imaging and Characterizing Extrasolar Planets at High Contrast Thayne Currie (U. Toronto, NAOJ Aug 2014!) Adam Burrows (Princeton), Nikku Madhusudhan (Cambridge), Ryan Cloutier (U. Toronto) + SEEDS Collaboration

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3 Charbonneau et al. (2000) Mayor and Queloz (1995) Extrasolar Planets

4 MANY Extrasolar Planets

5 E V (Oakley & Cash 2009; Kaltenegger et al. 2007)

6 Direct Imaging 1. Challenges: How to overcome them? 2. What we have learned so far? (e.g. atmospheres) 3. The Near Future?

7 Adaptive Optics  Sharper Images, Helps Us Separate Planet Light from Starlight (C. Beichman, A. Tanner; Palomar PALM-3K)

8 Why Directly Imaging Planets is Hard HR 8799 (Keck/NIRC2 H band; July 2005, Currie et al. 2012a)

9 Observing Techniques for Imaging Planets: “Angular Differential Imaging” (ADI)

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11 (Lafreniere et al. 2007) Post-Processing Techniques for Imaging Planets: A-LOCI (T. Currie 2012, 2013, 2014) A weighted, ‘locally optimized combination of (reference) images’ (LOCI) Science ImageRef.”Image” weights

12 Increased planet throughput, more reliable photometry, (sometimes) slight increase in SNR Detecting Planets with A-LOCI

13 (T. Currie 2012,2013, 2014) Truncate elements in covariance matrix during matrix inversion (similar to truncation on # principle components in PCA) ``Speckle filtering”

14 Currie et al. (2012a) Keck/NIRC2 (near-IR), July 2005 Exoplanet Direct Imaging with ADI and A-LOCI (ex. HR 8799) A-LOCI (May 2012)

15 Keck/NIRC2 (mid IR), November 2012 A-LOCI (current) Exoplanet Direct Imaging with ADI and A-LOCI (ex. HR 8799) Subaru/IRCS (mid-IR), July 2012 (Currie et al. 2014, in prep.) VLT/NaCo (near-IR), October 2010

16 ( Marois et al. 2008, 2010; Kalas et al. 2008; Lagrange et al. 2010; Currie et al. 2014a,b; Rameau et al. 2013; Kuzuhara et al. 2013) Directly Imaged Planetary Systems HR 8799 bcde

17 Unpublished … Many candidates to reimage! T. Currie, et al. in progress

18 Current Limits on Imaging Planets: Young super-jovian planets at > 10 AU (Skemer et al. 2014; Currie et al in prep)

19 Architectures of Directly-Imaged Planetary Systems

20 A “Scaled-Up” Version of the Solar System? HR 8799 – hotter, more massive and brighter than the Sun … (Marois et al. 2010)

21 Orbits of Directly-Imaged Planets (Nov to Nov. 2012) (Marois et al. 2010; Currie et al. 2012, 2014 in prep.; Mede, Currie et al in prep.)

22 Atmospheres of Directly-Imaged Planets HR 8799 bcde ROXs 42Bb (Currie et al. 2011a, 2014abc)

23 Directly-Imaged Planets: Should Look like Field Brown Dwarfs? Brown Dwarf Atmosphere Models: similar range in Teff  young gas giant planet atmospheres? (Burrows et al. 2006)

24 Near-Infrared Colors of Young Directly-Imaged Planets Currie et al. (2011a, 2013, 2014)

25 Fitting HR 8799b and c Data with Standard Atmosphere Models Used for Brown Dwarfs Currie et al. (2011a) FAIL!

26 Thicker clouds for Planets (not in Field Brown Dwarfs) = Huge difference From Atmosphere Models in Currie et al. (2011a)

27 HR 8799c Young Gas Giants have Thick (Patchy?) Clouds Currie et al. (2011a); Madhusudhan, Burrows, and Currie (2011) HR 8799bcd(e?) – ~ 5—7 Mj, Teff ~ K, log(g) ~

28 Spectra of Directly-Imaged Planets ROXs 42Bb (Currie et al. 2014a,b)

29 Spectra of Directly-Imaged Planets H2 Index ( micron flux ratio)  surface gravity tracer Low surface gravity  thick clouds? (Currie et al. 2014a,b; Currie et al. 2011a, 2013) H2(K)

30 Direct Imaging in the Near Future: SCExAO Project (2014-) -1. Extreme AO imager for Subaru -(PI O. Guyon). - Strehl Ratio (1.6 mic) ~ 90% - 2. Undergoing on-sky testing/engineering runs; full power ~ late 2014? IFU spectrograph (CHARIS) -3. Exoplanet Imaging -as follow-on to SEEDS

31 What Can SCExAO Do? 15 Myr old; 30 pc away

32 SCExAO vs. First-Light TMT NFIRAOS estimates from Marois et al SCExAO: Likely best exoplanet imager in North until 2 nd gen TMT (~2030)

33 Summary 1. Challenges: How to overcome them? 2. What we have learned so far? (e.g. atmospheres) 3. The Near Future?

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36 Guyon (2013); Matsuo et al. (2013)

37 SCExAO: A Precursor to TMT Exoplanet Imaging Martinache & Guyon 2011; Jovanovic et al. 2013; Martinache et al “Speckle Nulling” PIAA Coronagraph – planet imaging at ~ lambda/D

38 Matsuo et al. (2013)

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