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Extrasolar Giant Planet Theory and Atmospheres An Emerging Synthesis of Planetary Science and Astronomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Extrasolar Giant Planet Theory and Atmospheres An Emerging Synthesis of Planetary Science and Astronomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extrasolar Giant Planet Theory and Atmospheres An Emerging Synthesis of Planetary Science and Astronomy

2 Theory Program for Modeling EGPs  Evolution, Spectra, and Colors of isolated and irradiated substellar- mass objects (SMOs) and planetary structure studies  Theory of T and L dwarfs  Atmospheric Chemistry and Abundances: Molecules and atoms  Reflection Spectra and Albedos of EGPs  Cloud modeling (silicates, Fe, H 2 O, NH 3 )  Transit, eclipse, and secondary eclipse studies  Evolution of Jupiter and Saturn  Opacity and molecular spectrum calculations (Quantum chemistry)  Ab-initio calculations for Na-D, K I, FeH, CrH, TiH …  Predictions in support of ground-based and space-based programs of direct extrasolar planet detection  Radiative transfer techniques  (Collaborators: Burrows, Hubbard, Hubeny, Sudarsky, Sharp, Milsom, Lunine, Li, Fortney, Cooper, Volobuyev)

3 The Evolution and Measurement of EGPs: Remote Sensing of Extrasolar Planets

4 Theory of EGPs Scientific Themes: Physics, Atmospheres, Chemistry, Structure, Spectra, Composition, Clouds, Evolution, Remote Sensing  General EGP properties  Transit Theory  Irradiated EGPs and Direct Detection

5 Burrows, Sudarsky, and Lunine 2003

6 JWST

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8 Extrasolar Giant Planet Exotica  Orbits from 0.02 AU to ~5 AU Orbital eccentricities can be very high (0 to ~0.8) Orbital eccentricities can be very high (0 to ~0.8) Periods from 1.2 days Periods from 1.2 days Masses from below Saturn’s mass to >10 M J Masses from below Saturn’s mass to >10 M J Many multi-EGP systems Many multi-EGP systems 4 “Neptunes” discovered 4 “Neptunes” discovered 7 transiting EGPs 7 transiting EGPs Secondary eclipses seen in two Secondary eclipses seen in two Correlation with metallicity Correlation with metallicity Found around M, K, G, and F stars Found around M, K, G, and F stars  Stellar irradiation effects (on spectra and radii)  Migration in protostellar disks in first millions of years  Planetary Winds and mass loss (evaporation?)  Jet Streams and Day/night contrasts for close-in EGPs  Complicated Albedo behavior with orbital distance  Planetary Phases and extreme light curves  Ammonia, Water, and silicate clouds (variation during orbit!)  General circulation models (GCMs) needed

9 Orbital Properties of a Few Extrasolar Giant Planets

10 Colors: Metallicity

11 (T. Guillot)

12 51 Peg b, 1995: R vs. M vs. composition (H, He, H 2 O, silicates …) Zapolsky and Salpeter 1969 Guillot, Burrows et al. 1996

13 1.0 M j 51 Peg b Olivine Hayashi Forbidden Zone Tidal

14 Giant Planet Transits and Phase Curves

15 Transit Radius vs. Planet Mass

16 Charbonneau, Brown et al. 2001, 2002, 2003 Transit by HD209458b

17 Burrows et al OGLE-TR-56b HD209458b

18 Burrows, Sudarsky, and Hubbard 2003

19 Fortney et al. 2003

20 Na detection: Charbonneau et al HD209458b:

21 Lyman Alpha: Vidal-Madjar et al. 2003; 15%! ~4.3 R j : Planetary Wind! cf. Burrows & Lunine (1995) 15% dip!

22 Irradiated EGPs vs. Angular Separation Burrows 2005; Sudarsky, Burrows, and Hubeny 2003

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25 Burrows, Sudarsky, and Hubeny 2004

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27 Geometric Albedos

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29 (T. Guillot)

30 Sudarsky, Burrows 2000

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32 Effects of Clouds

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34 Phase Function at 0.55 microns vs. Orbital Distance

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37 Eccentricity and Peak Shift

38 Phase Dependence of the EGP’s Color

39 Giant Planet Transits and Secondary Eclipses

40 Spitzer ? MOST?

41 Spitzer ST:

42 Data: Deming et al. 2005; Charbonneau et al Secondary Eclipses of Transiting EGPs Burrows, Hubeny, & Sudarsky 2005, Ap.J. Letters, in press.

43 CO, H 2 O, and CH 4 Opacities

44 Future of Direct Detection of Extrasolar Planets  Precision Radial Velocity  Precision photometry ?  Transit searches (many)  Interferometry (LBT, VLTI, Keck, PTI): Imaging (Fizeau) and Astrometry (Michelson)  Extreme Adaptive Optics  Microlensing  Spectral Separation  Differential imaging  Antarctica (30-m, 100- m?) HST astrometry ? NICMOS upgrade ? Spitzer (IRAC, IRS, MIPS) JWST (MIRI, NIRCam) SIM/GAIA Eclipse (coronagraph)? Kepler/COROT MOST, MONS TPF-C; TPF-I/Darwin Planet Finder/Life Finder From the Ground:From Space:

45 Planet/Star Contrast: Theory (dashed) versus Capability Red: H band (1.6 microns); Purple: Mid-IR; Green: Optical

46 Schedule Gaia TPF/Darwin Very large telescopes (GMT,TMT,OWL) Very large space arrays Kepler COROT SIM TPF/Darwin precursor? Amex (M. Perryman )

47 NASA’s Origins development First Generation Second Generation Visions (as summarized by M. Perryman)

48 SIM:

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51 Cho et al. 2003

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53 Albedos

54 Irradiated Brown Dwarfs

55 Unapproved TPF ‘precursors’: missions/concepts Eclipse: (Trauger et al. 2003) – 2004 Discovery? Eclipse: (Trauger et al. 2003) – 2004 Discovery? 1.8 m + coronograph + wavefront correction – Jupiters to 5 AU for stars to 15 pc 1.8 m + coronograph + wavefront correction – Jupiters to 5 AU for stars to 15 pc JPF: Jovian planet finder (Clampin et al. 2002) – 2004 Discovery? JPF: Jovian planet finder (Clampin et al. 2002) – 2004 Discovery? 1.5 m + coronograph, originally on ISS – Jupiters to 2-20 AU 1.5 m + coronograph, originally on ISS – Jupiters to 2-20 AU ESPI: Extrasolar planet imager, Midex, (Lyon et al. 2003) ESPI: Extrasolar planet imager, Midex, (Lyon et al. 2003) 1.5  1.5 m apodized square aperture – Jupiters around 160 stars to 16 pc 1.5  1.5 m apodized square aperture – Jupiters around 160 stars to 16 pc ExPO: Extrasolar planet observatory (Gezari et al. 2003) ExPO: Extrasolar planet observatory (Gezari et al. 2003) similar concept to ESPI proposed as Discovery class mission similar concept to ESPI proposed as Discovery class mission SPF: Self-luminous planet finder (Woolf et al. 2001) SPF: Self-luminous planet finder (Woolf et al. 2001) search for younger/more massive Jupiters in Jupiter orbits search for younger/more massive Jupiters in Jupiter orbits FKSI: Fourier-Kelvin stellar interferometer (Danchi et al. 2003, poster 8.06) FKSI: Fourier-Kelvin stellar interferometer (Danchi et al. 2003, poster 8.06) mid-infrared nulling interferometer: detection of 25 EGPs within 10 pc mid-infrared nulling interferometer: detection of 25 EGPs within 10 pc OPD: Optical planet discoverer (Mennesson et al. 2003) OPD: Optical planet discoverer (Mennesson et al. 2003) midway between coronography and Bracewell nulling midway between coronography and Bracewell nulling PIAA: Phase-induced amplitude apodization (Guyon 2003) PIAA: Phase-induced amplitude apodization (Guyon 2003) reflection of an unapodized flat wavefront on two shaped mirrors reflection of an unapodized flat wavefront on two shaped mirrors EPIC (M. Perryman)

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57 MIPS: Secondary Eclipse of HD209458b!

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59 Spitzer/IRAC Photometry of T Dwarfs

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61 Molecular Opacities

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