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How Did Plants Evolve?. Scientists believe that plants evolved from an ancestor of green algae (a member of Kingdom Protista). These early plants were.

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Presentation on theme: "How Did Plants Evolve?. Scientists believe that plants evolved from an ancestor of green algae (a member of Kingdom Protista). These early plants were."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Did Plants Evolve?

2 Scientists believe that plants evolved from an ancestor of green algae (a member of Kingdom Protista). These early plants were similar to todays mosses (shown through fossil evidence) Were dependent on water for reproduction and to avoid drying out.

3 The advantage of life on land… More sunlight More CO 2 More nutrients The disadvantage? Water Loss/Drying Out! So, what adaptations did plants develop in order to thrive on land? The Move To Land…

4 Adaptations: 1: The Cuticle A waxy covering that prevents water loss 2: Vascular Tissue Not every part of a plant is touching water, so tubes transport materials up and down. Xylem: Water up from the roots Phloem: Sugars down from the leaves. 3: Seeds Instead of Spores Spores need water to reproduce Seeds provide an embryo with the food and protection needed for a dry environment.

5 Cuticle Vascular Tissue Seeds Fruit & Flowers Green Algae Ancestor BryophytesFernsGymnospermsAngiosperms The Plant Family Tree

6 The Bryophytes (Seedless Non-Vascular Plants) Cuticle? Yes Vascular Tissue? No So…Stays close to the ground, near water Seeds? No So…reproduces with spores, must be near water Examples? Mosses Liverworts Hornworts Liverwort Hornwort

7 Life Cycle of Moss

8 Cuticle Vascular Tissue Seeds Fruit & Flowers Green Algae Ancestor BryophytesFernsGymnospermsAngiosperms The Plant Family Tree

9 The Ferns (Seedless Vascular Plants) Cuticle? – Yes Vascular Tissue? – Yes Seeds? – No – So…reproduces with spores, must be near water Examples? – Ferns – Horsetail – Equisetum

10 Life Cycle of Fern

11 Cuticle Vascular Tissue Seeds Fruit & Flowers Green Algae Ancestor BryophytesFernsGymnospermsAngiosperms The Plant Family Tree

12 Male & Female cone The Gymnosperms (Vascular Seed Plants) Cuticle? – Yes Vascular Tissue? – Yes (but leaves are reduced to needles to prevent water loss) Seeds? – Yes – But…they are naked! – Males & Female Cones Examples? – Pine – Spruce – Gingko

13 Gymnosperm Life cycle

14 Cuticle Vascular Tissue Seeds Fruit & Flowers Green Algae Ancestor BryophytesFernsGymnospermsAngiosperms The Plant Family Tree

15 The Angiosperms (Vascular Seed Plants) Cuticle? – Yes Vascular Tissue? – Yes Seeds? – Yes – Flowers & fruit protect and help disperse! Examples? – Flowering Plants – Grass – Corn Stinking Corpse Lily – p 591

16

17 Task: you need to find a way to survive with your feet permanently anchored in cement You CANT: Hide from predators Seek a mate Walk to water or food Change your habitat You HAVE to: Get necessary nutrients Get water & oxygen Reproduce (your mate may be miles away) Deal with changes in your environment (i.e. dry, wet, hot, cold, dark, light, etc..)


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