Presentation on theme: "Country experiences in mainstreaming environment into national development processes Lessons from Tanzania By Ruzika N. Muheto & Blandina M. Cheche PEP."— Presentation transcript:
Country experiences in mainstreaming environment into national development processes Lessons from Tanzania By Ruzika N. Muheto & Blandina M. Cheche PEP meeting, January 30, Nairobi
Why its important to get environment into the heart of Tanzanias development Poor people in Tanzania depend most on environmental assets and are more vulnerable to environmental hazards Six big environmental problems identified by 1997 National Environment Policy (NEP): Land degradation Accessibility of water Air and water pollution Loss of biodiversity and habitats Aquatic systems degradation Deforestation
Importance of P-E cont… Most have worsened in last 10 years – and others emerge (climate change) Positive attributes of environment, as assets for development, ignored Some facts: (from inputs to MKUKUTA): –NRs provide livelihoods for 76% rural people –Fuelwood provides energy for 95% entire population –Agriculture provides 45% GDP and 60% exports –Wildlife-related tourism, mining and fisheries are fastest-growing sectors –But $1 billion is lost annually from forest, fisheries, wildlife degradation, under-valuation and poor revenue collection –Droughts are cutting economic growth (by 10% in 2003), Environment initiatives and poverty reduction initiatives have been separate – until the MKUKUTA…
Key role of the MKUKUTA Informed by Tanzanias Vision 2025 (1999) Commits to achieving MDGs Successor to PRS – with home-grown strategic planning principles and working within existing capacity The most participatory, nationally owned, cross- cutting, outcome-based policy/planning process to date in Tanzania But not a self-contained story
The awareness transition – environment recognised as a foundation for development – academic, NGO, media, political drivers: Environment had been a niche concern, on the margins 1990s environment champions issued env manifesto for all parties Increasingly visible problems – water, climate, NR degradation Media interest in environmental impacts – prawns, logscam Growing concern about constraints facing community wildlife/forestry and other institutions producing public env goods Political leadership – env now a priority in 2005 manifesto
The planning transition policy and planning processes becoming more closely integrated – key role of Finance Ministry and Vice- Presidents Office Tanzania has prized good planning since independence From priority sectors to outcome-based approaches Ministry of Finance asking about environmental contributions to outcomes – environment expenditure review Decentralisation is hearing fresh things about env from local groups Vice-Presidents Office coordination – linked mandate
The aid transition Tanzania increasingly in the driving seat of development assistance partnerships – value of Paris agenda: President Nyerere promoting self-reliance 1995 Helleiner Report – donors too much on top New PRS to be truly country-driven – local name, MKUKUTA Tanzania commanding Paris discourse/instruments of aid effectiveness – Joint Assistance Strategy, quiet period… Supportive Development Partners Group (i.e. donor heads) Supportive donor env champions in DPE-E sub-group
Role of the VPO/UNDP Environmental Integration Project Project worked with above drivers and initiatives of awareness, planning and aid transitions: The Poverty Reduction Strategy Review – env mainstream guidelines and consultations helped env voices to be heard, and env facts and figures to become clearer – showing env not a brake on development The Public Expenditure Review (PER) – env expenditure review helped env actors to demonstrate value for money and claim higher budget The development of the Environmental Management Act (EMA) – helped make case for env capacity at local level, linked to dev The development of the poverty monitoring system (PMS) – including pov/env indicators, also reflected in PAF Providing coordination: Supporting a multi-stakeholder Env Working Group Supporting MKUKUTA consultations run by stakeholders (18,000 participants in meetings in 168 villages, joint NGO submissions 25,000 returned public questionnaires, parliamentary debates South-South exchange (Uganda, Ghana…) Helping draft MKUKUTA
Stock-taking – whats been achieved – and why Clear env targets: a logical cluster framework for action covering goals> targets> interventions> packages> contributing actors> indicators 15+ environ. Targets linked directly to budget process with pov-env indicators A shift in debates about env: from poverty as a cause of environ, problems expressed by a few to environ a driver of poverty reduction expressed by many from environ as a technical issue to environ as a political/economic issue
Cont… Institutional and financial change: Ministry of Finance engaged on env 5x env budget this year rolling out VPO guidelines on mainstreaming env in sectors/local gov A new, holistic, consultative policy process setting a precedent for the future: An informed political consensus, not just a technocratic exercise MKUKUTA widely owned – at least at central levels Many cross-cut issues (inc env) on same level as priority sectors The planning gap between env and poverty now bridged … an iconic and enduring example of PRS principles in action An implementation gap remains
What has worked less well – and why? Little feedback to consultees (logistics) Not yet the chance to rethink development paradigm – growth dominates Not enough on poor peoples positive env contributions Not enough on distributional problems – env winners and losers? Engaging the private sector – too little, too late Information management burden – too much to sieve and sift Prioritisation not yet complete – 108 targets Process monitoring – no real record / reflection until now
Looking forward: challenges to come, and our fitness to meet them Bridging the implementation gap – money, governance, monitoring: Identifying priorities from 108 targets Policy coherence between MKUKUTA (can-do approach to env) and EMA (cant do) Streamlining national env capacity – esp for env monitoring, valuation, planning – and linking it to major budget/plan processes Decentralising env capacity – linking district committees Support effective env rights, responsibilities, rewards, and relationships (4Rs) for poor people Finalising and measuring poverty/env indicators – and using in both pov and env monitoring Keeping consultation, assessment and feedback going – and improving them: how, by whom, on whose terms, and allowable scope? Tackling under-investment in environment for poverty reduction New finance instruments – donor roles re off-track MDG7?
Lessons 1. National leadership is essential 2. The environment must be presented as integral to poverty reduction 3. Trade-offs between development and environment are key – discuss bottom lines 4. Invest in evidence, knowledge and debate on poverty-environment links 5. Enable stakeholders to explore their own links to the environment 6. The voices of poor people are central 7. The private sector needs to be involved throughout 8. Donor harmonisation and budget support need to respond to poverty- environment links 9. Technical assistance should be demand-led, and enable local capacities 10. Budgets count – use finance authorities to ask questions about env! 11. Alliances with other cross-cutting issues can be mutually rewarding 12. The timing of mainstreaming work is key
Conclusion Tanzanias MKUKUTA has begun to erase a depressing picture – of degradation of the environment; disconnects between environment-dependent stakeholders and those who set policy; debilitated environmental authorities; and depleted environmental budgets. The environmental mainstreaming successes of the MKUKUTA have painted a new, inspiring picture – of a broader approach to poverty reduction incorporating environmental needs and opportunities, including many actors, focusing on making Tanzanias development paths more secure in the future.