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NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Briefing to the APAN Earth Observation Working Group January 30, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Briefing to the APAN Earth Observation Working Group January 30, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Briefing to the APAN Earth Observation Working Group January 30, 2004

2 Specialized Satellites
A Tri-agency Effort to Leverage and Combine Environmental Satellite Activities METOP NPOESS NPOESS Mission Provide a national, operational, polar- orbiting remote-sensing capability Achieve National Performance Review (NPR) savings by converging DoD and NOAA satellite programs Incorporate new technologies from NASA Encourage International Cooperation 0530 1330 0930 Specialized Satellites Local Equatorial Crossing Time NPOESS Saves $1.6B through System Life Cycle compared to NPR target of $1.3B NPOESS is Good Government!

3 NPOESS NPOESS is required to provide an OPERATIONAL remote sensing capability to acquire and receive in real-time at field terminals, and to acquire, store and disseminate to processing centers, GLOBAL and regional environmental imagery and specialized METEOROLOGICAL, CLIMATIC, TERRESTRIAL, OCEANOGRAPHIC and SOLAR-GEOPHYSICAL and other data in support of public safety, commerce, environmental monitoring and research.

4 National Importance Timely, accurate, and cost-effective public warnings and forecasts of severe weather events, reduce the potential loss of human life and property and advance the national economy Support of general aviation, agriculture, and maritime communities aimed at increasing U.S. productivity Commitment to support long-term data continuity for environmental monitoring and Global Change assessment NPOESS Goal: Improve the Nation’s Space-Based, Remote Sensing Capabilities for Environmental Monitoring

5 Establishing NPOESS National Space Council Study - 1992
National Performance Review (NPR) - September 1993 Identified Need for Coordinated Effort OSTP Convergence Implementation Plan submitted to Congress - May 1994 Presidential Decision Directive/NSTC-2 - May 1994 Directed Convergence of National Assets Tri-agency Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) - May 1995 Established Roles and Responsibilities of Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, and NASA EUMETSAT/NOAA Initial Joint Polar Agreement - November 1998 Brought in International Community

6 Two Polar-orbiting Systems
DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) Currently F-14 Launched December 1994 F-15 Launched December 1999 F-16 Launched December 2003 POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite) First Launched April 1, 1960 Currently NOAA-15 Launched May 1998 NOAA-16 Launched Sep 2000 NOAA-17 Launched Jun 2002

7 DMSP/POES to NPOESS Convergence & Evolution of Mission Areas
DoD/AF DoD/AF DMSP Military Block 6 Tri-Agency -Imaging - μwave Sounding -Space Environment -Under DMSP SPO NPOESS CONVERGENCE DOC/NOAA DOC/NOAA Imaging Sounding Climate Ozone Space Environment Under Integrated Program Office POES Civil OPQR -Imaging -Sounding -Climate -Ozone -Space Environment -Under POES Prog Office Discontinued

8 Specialized Satellites
Evolution DMSP/POES NPOESS U.S. civil and defense programs, working in partnership with EUMETSAT, will ensure improved global coverage and long-term continuity of observations at less cost! METOP Tomorrow (2005) 4-Orbit System 2 US Military 1 US Civilian 1 EUMETSAT/METOP Local Equatorial Crossing Time METOP 0530 0830 1330 0930 DMSP POES POES DMSP NPOESS NPOESS 0730 1330 0530 1330 0530 0830 0930 POES Specialized Satellites Local Equatorial Crossing Time Local Equatorial Crossing Time DMSP NPOESS Today 4-Orbit System 2 US Military 2 US Civilian Future ( ) 3-Orbit System 3 US Converged 1 EUMETSAT/METOP Specialized Satellites

9 Satellite Transition Schedule (DMSP 2yr launch centers, NPOESS GAP 6c NLF input) Slopes indicate 10-90% need CY 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  Year Mission Life  0530 F17 F19 F20 DMSP C3 NPOESS C6 WindSat/Coriolis F15 F16 F18 C1 NPOESS C4 DMSP NPOESS POES 17 METOP EOS-Terra Local Equatorial Crossing Time NPP POES 16 N N’ C2 NPOESS C5 1330 EOS-Aqua Earliest Need to back-up launch Mission Satisfaction S/C Deliveries Earliest Availability FY 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 S/C delivery interval driven by 15 month IAT schedule As of: 20 Oct 02 Launch date based on backup need Most probable launch date

10 Building A More Capable System
First Image from TIROS-1 First Image from EOS-Terra Mississippi Delta from the MODIS Instrument 24 February 2000

11 An End-to-End Responsibility
First image is the NOAA-L launch on Sep 21st NOAA -16 was launched on a Titan II out of Vandenburg, CA

12 NPOESS Requirements Convergence of Alternatives Integrated Operational Requirements Document (IORD-II) 55 Data Products 21 Enhancement Products 2 System Characteristic KPPs Convergence of Requirements Converged requirements provide foundation for combined program First success after eight previous attempts

13 Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
IORD Content Example Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Sea Surface Temperature is defined as a highly precise measurement of the temperature of the surface layer (upper 1 meter) of ocean water It has two major applications: 1) sea surface phenomenology, and 2) use in infrared cloud/no cloud decision for processed cloud data. The accompanying requirements apply only under clear conditions (unless specified otherwise).

14 Environmental Data Records
By Discipline Atmospheric Oceanic Terrestrial Space Environment Climate Atmos Vert Moist Prof Dn Lwave Rad (Sfc) Ozone-Tot Col/Profile Atmos Vert Temp Prof Electric Field Precipitable Water Imagery Electron Density Prof Precip Type / Rate Sea Surf Temp Aero Refractive Index Pressure (Surf/Profile) Sea Surf Winds Geomagnetic Field Sea Ice Age Char Soil Moisture Ice Surface Temp Sea Surface Hgt/Topo Aero Opt Thickness Energetic Ions Snow Cover/Depth Aerosol Particle Size In-situ Plasma Fluct Solar Irradiance Albedo (Surface) In-situ Plasma Temp ST- Auroral Particles Auroral Boundary Downward Swave Rad Surface Wind Stress Auroral Imagery Med Energy Particles Suspended Matter Cloud Base Height Ionospheric Scint Auroral Energy Depos Cloud Cover/Layers Land Surface Temp Out Lwave Rad (TOA) Cloud Eff Particle Size Surface Type Cloud Ice Water Path Net Heat Flux Cloud Liquid Water Net Solar Rad (TOA) Cloud Opt Thickness Neutral Density Profile Cloud Top Height Total Water Content Cloud Top Pressure Vegetation Index Cloud Top Temp Ocean Color / Chlor Cloud Part Size / Dist Ocean Wave Char The NPOESS sensor suites are being designed to deliver 61 primary Environmental Data Records (EDR) to end users. These measurements encompass atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, and solar-geophysical parameters. Complementary measurements from multiple instrument suites will improve capabilities for all-weather imaging and sounding. <NEXT SLIDE> LEGEND - KPPs

15 NPOESS Program Vision The IPO and TRW/Raytheon team:
Working in a spirit of shared ownership to develop and deploy the single, national, polar-orbiting environmental remote-sensing capability to meet next-generation civil and military needs Breaking the Mold! Thinking “Out of the Box” Working Together Creating Success The only thing they pay us for!

16 SSPR Responsibilities
Government and Contractor Share Risk Open Communications Facilitate Insight Into Each Other’s Decisions Integrated Management Framework (IMF) Improves Visibility Large, Flexible Fee Pool Approaches Commercial Returns Meet Our Contractors Specific Motivators Reflects Government Expectations Success Defined As Meeting Requirements Incentives Focus on Highest Program Risk -- Total System Integration and Performance Shared Ownership creates a Win/Win situation

17 SSPR Responsibilities cont...
Government Industry Controls Performance Requirements Controls All Aspects of Design and Manufacture Manages SSPR Contractor Manages All Subcontractors and Associate Contractors Establishes Flexible, Positive Rewards Flow Rewards to All Teammates Teammates and Supplier Relations Established Early Flexible Teammate and Supplier Relationships Are Earn-on, Perform to Stay, Motivated to Innovate Ensures Industrial Base Is Maintained Business Relationships Based on Best Business Practices Open Communications through IMF Open Communications through IMF

18 NPOESS Acquisition and Operation
Acquisition and Operation (A&O) Contract was awarded on August 23, 2002 to TRW for $4.5B A&O Contract consists of: 6 satellites Taking over all government instrument contracts Buying all “leveraged” instruments Integrating GFE instruments (ADCS and SARSAT) Building and deploying all ground systems C3 and data retrieval Data processing hardware and software Software for worldwide users Operating system through IOC (2011) With option to 2018

19 * Critical instrument - Failure constitutes need to replace satellite
NPOESS Payloads NPOESS Instruments METOP NPP TBD 0530 0930 1330 0930 1030 IPO Developed Visible/IR Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)* X X X X (AVHRR) X Cross-track IR Sounder (CrIS)* X X X (IASI/HIRS) X Conical MW Imager/Sounder (CMIS)* X X X Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) X X (GOME) X GPS Occultation Sensor (GPSOS) X X (GRAS) Space Environmental Sensor Suite (SESS) X X (SEM) Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) X Leveraged Advanced Technology MW Sounder (ATMS)* X X X (AMSU/MHS) X ARGOS-Data Collection System (A-DCS) X X X Search and Rescue (SARSAT) X X X X Earth Radiation Budget Sensor (ERBS) X Total Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) X Radar altimeter (ALT) X Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) X * Critical instrument - Failure constitutes need to replace satellite

20 NPOESS Satellite Single satellite design with common sensor locations
CMIS CMIS - μwave imager VIIRS - vis/IR imager CrIS IR sounder ATMS - μwave sounder OMPS - ozone GPSOS - GPS occultation ADCS - data collection SESS - space environment APS aerosol polarimeter SARSAT - search & rescue TSIS solar irradiance ERBS - Earth radiation budget ALT altimeter ATMS CrIS VIIRS OMPS ERBS NPOESS 1330 Configuration Single satellite design with common sensor locations

21 Instruments in Development/Production Phase
Cross-track IR Sounder (CrIS) ITT Industries Visible/IR Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Raytheon SBRS Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS) Boeing Ozone Mapping & Profiler Suite (OMPS) Ball Aerospace Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Northrop Grumman

22 Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite

23 VIIRS Design

24 Compact, All Reflective Optical Design Minimizes Stray Light
Rotating Telescope Half Angle Mirror FMA Imager SWMWIR & LWIR Dewar VisNIR/DNB FPA

25 VIIRS Data Characteristics

26 Precipitation Measurement Ocean surface wind field
Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder All Weather Imaging Precipitation Measurement Ocean surface wind field and cloud imagery

27 Cross-track Infrared Sounder
Hurricane warm core temperature anomaly

28 Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite
Description Collects data to permit the calculation of the vertical and horizontal distribution of Ozone in the earth’s atmosphere. Primary instrument for satisfying 1 EDR. Specifications Horizontal Res: Nadir (column) Nadir (profile) Vertical Res: 5km (tropopause thru 60km) Heritage and Risk Reduction TOMS - Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer SBUV - Solar Backscatter UltraViolet EUMETSAT - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on EUMETSAT/METOP ISIR - IR Technology demo on STS-85 SOLSE/LORE - UV Limb demo on STS-87 OMPS Limb Profiling Contractor: Ball Aerospace OMPS Nadir Mapper

29 GPS Occultation Sensor
Description Measures the refraction of radiowave signals from the GPS and Russia’s Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) to characterize the Ionosphere. Primary instrument for electron density and ionospheric profiles. Secondary measurements for tropospheric temperature and humidity profiles. Specifications Multiple GPS receivers to measure electron density profile with vertical coverage 10km within 100km of E/F peaks and 20km elsewhere Heritage and Risk Reduction EUMETSAT - GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Receiver for Atmospheric Sounder (GRAS) on METOP GPS/MET - (Global Positioning System/ Meteorology) GLONASS GPS Ionosphere Contractor: Saab Ericsson

30 Space Environmental Sensor Suite
Description Measures the near-Earth space environment in terms of neutral and charged particles, electron and magnetic fields, and optical signatures of aurora. Primary sensor suite for satisfying 14 EDRs. Specifications Multiple sensors to measure auroral characteristics, geomagnetic field, electron density profile, and total electron content with 10 km vertical resolution from 60 km to 3000 km Heritage and Risk Reduction DMSP - Space Sensor POES - Space Environment Monitor

31 NPOESS Segment Architecture
GPS TDRSS 1730 Space Segment 1330 2130 Residual Satellites NPP Svalbard Primary T&C NPP SMD WSC LEO&A Backup T&C Field Terminal Segment ADCS SARSAT Launch Support Segment ADS Supplied by NOAA CLASS Supplied by NASA SDS Interface Data Processing Segment NESDIS AFWA FNMOC NAVO 15 Globally Distributed Receptor Sites Data Handling Node Front End Processor MMC at Schriever Alternate Operations Team MMC at Suitland Flight Operations Team C3 Segment

32 NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Joint IPO/NASA Risk Reduction Demo
NPP Spacecraft contract awarded to Ball Aerospace – May 2002 Instrument Risk Reduction Early delivery / instrument-level test / system-level integration and test VIIRS - Vis/IR Imager Radiometer Suite (IPO) CrIS - Cross-track IR Sounder (IPO) ATMS - Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (NASA) Provides lessons learned and allows time for any required modifications before NPOESS first launch Ground System Risk Reduction Early delivery and test of a subset of NPOESS-like ground system elements Early User Evaluation of NPOESS data products Provides algorithms / instrument verification and opportunities for instrument calibration / validation prior to first NPOESS launch Allows for algorithm modification prior to first NPOESS launch Continuity of data for NASA’s EOS Terra/Aqua missions

33 Communication Segment Interface Data Processing Archive & Distribution
The NPP System Spacecraft ATMS Ground Support Equipment VIIRS CrIS IPO Antenna Location X Launch Support Segment (LSS) Launch vehicle Launch support Payload Processing support Command, Control & Communication Segment (C3S) Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) Manage Mission (joint funding) Manage Satellite Operations Space/Ground Comm Data Routing & Retrieval Science Data Segment (SDS) Ingest and validate raw SMD Process RDRs, SDRs, EDRs Perform operations cal proc Provide data records to Centrals, SDS & ADS Ingest and validate RDRs Process RDRs to Level 1B Generate climate data products Perform science cal proc Provide Climate data to ADS Archive & Distribution Segment (ADS) Ingest & validate data records Manage archive Interface with users Generate user products Track user orders Generate accounting reports -NOAA Funding IPO Funding NASA Funding

34 Calibration/Validation
To tie it all together and make it work…. Calibration Absolute Accuracy Polarization Purity Geolocation Accuracy Instrument Stability Doppler Correction Antenna Pattern Correction Validation Ocean Wind Speed Water Vapor Cloud Water Rain Rate Sea Ice Soil Moisture Snow water Land Temp Lower Air Profiles Upper Air Profiles Mission Success Meet Specification Operational production of synoptic maps and profiles of critical atmospheric, oceanographic and land parameters Quality Control Ensures Users NWP Real-time tactical Non-tactical JTWC NHC JIC Others

35 IDPS Products Environmental Data Records
Cloud Top Heights VIIRS – Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite Cloud Layers Total Precipitable Water Surface Temperature Environmental Properties Displayed at VIIRS Pixel Locations

36 Environmental Observing
Natural Hazards Detection and Mapping Ozone Monitoring Multi-spectral Hurricane Mapping and Profiling Sea Surface Temperature Ocean Circulation All Weather Imaging Precipitation Measurement Snow and Ice Mapping and Monitoring

37 Protect Safety of Life and Property Improve Accuracy of Severe Weather Warnings
Improved Microwave Imagery/Sounding products will improve prediction of wind speed and direction Increase in hurricane landfall forecast skill will save an estimated $1 million per mile of coastline that does not have to be evacuated Improved early warnings mitigate the devastating effects of floods through disaster planning and response

38 Other Benefits to the Civilian Community
NPOESS will improve ability to predict El Niño. A 60% increase in El Niño forecast skill will save $183 million per year over 12 year period. Ice monitoring for shipping Snow cover mapping - spring flood prediction

39 Fine-scale visible cloud imagery from DMSP satellite and
Fine-Scale METSAT and Forecasting Fine-scale visible cloud imagery from DMSP satellite and 9-hour forecast of 4 Km clouds using MM5 0730Z 10 Aug 12Z 10 Aug 1618Z 10 Aug Balkans 16Z 10 Aug

40 Fine-Scale METSAT and Forecasting
Future of fine-scale weather forecasting is combining high-resolution satellite data with numerical weather prediction and producing visualizations with impact Nebraska 12 Km 4 Km Nebraska

41 NPOESS Benefits the Nation
Accurate forecasts are critical to the protection of life, safety, and property NPOESS data will improve forecasts and warnings Improved forecasts will Reduce loss of life and property benefit US industry through increased productivity NPOESS will maintain long-term data continuity for climate monitoring and assessment

42 Additional COnsiderations
Each satellite will produce approximately 2 TB of data per day RDRs – Raw Data Records SDRs – Sensor Data Records – calibrated geolocated EDRs – Environmental Data Records – products NPP will not have direct broadcast NPOESS will have direct broadcast, but receiving station costs will make electronic data transfers attractive. Distribution of NPP and NPOESS data to the Asia Pacific region could be a major new EO-WG objective. If there is interest in this the requirement for NPP and NPOESS data needs to be expressed to the national representatives of the GEO.

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