Presented by Susan Roberts Carson-Newman College Teacher Education Division Using the Four Blocks Model for Exemplary Literacy Instruction
Our obligation to Americas teachers is as clear and strong as our obligation to Americas children. Teachers deserve all the knowledge and support we can give them. And children deserve the quality education that comes from excellent teachers. This is their birthright. –First Lady Laura Bush Mandate: No less than a qualified teacher in every public school classroom. –Federal No Child Left Behind Law of 2002 Spotlight on Reading
A Balanced Literacy Framework… Using Patricia Cunninghams Four Blocks Literacy Model
Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, National Research Council Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998 n Academic success, as defined by high school graduation, can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by knowing someones reading skill at the end of grade three. A person who is not at least a modestly skilled reader by the end of third grade is quite unlikely to graduate from high school.
Teaching Approaches: 1950s – 1960s Look, Say Sight Reading
Teaching Approaches: 1990s – 2000 Whole Language
Balance Traditional (Phonics)Whole Language Direct skill InstructionOral Reading by teachers and students Explicit, systematic teaching Flexible Grouping Formats Systematic PhonicsProcess Writing Basal readersLanguage rich environment Decodable textTrade Books
Balanced Reading Diet To become good readers, students need a balanced reading diet. The different food groups of balanced reading instruction are: Guided Reading Self-Selected Reading Writing Working with Words Cunningham and Allington, 1999
The Big Five Areas of Reading Development Phonemic Awareness Vocabulary Phonics & Decoding Strategies Comprehension Strategies Fluency
Four Blocks Framework The Four Blocks framework was developed by teachers who believe that to be successful in teaching all children to read and write, we have to do it all! Doing it all means incorporating daily the different approaches to beginning reading.
Working with Words Purpose: To ensure that children read, spell, and use high-frequency words correctly, and that they learn the patterns necessary for decoding and spelling. In February of 2000, Time reported this trend in the vocabularies of typical 14-year-olds: 1950 - Vocabulary of 25,000 words 1999 - Vocabulary of 10,000 words
Working With Words Segment One (Ten Minutes) Word Wall Segment Two (20 Minutes) Decoding and Spelling Activities Making Words Guess the Covered Word Rounding Up the Rhymes Reading and Writing Rhymes Using Words You Know
AUTOMATICITY AND THE BRAIN The brain has the remarkable ability to make things automatic after having processed (words) several times. Once something is put in the automatic part of the brain, it is carried out without any conscious thought. Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy P. Hall, 1998
AUTOMATICITY AND THE BRAIN: This automatic-making function of the brain is a wonderful asset when it makes things automatic right. However, it isnt really the students fault that their brains have learned (words) automatically but wrong. But, it is their responsibility to fix it. Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy P. Hall, 1998
AUTOMATICITY AND THE BRAIN: The brain does not like to take things out of the automatic compartment, throw them away, and put them back in there right! Thus, the need for lots of repetition and practice…perfect practice, that is. Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy P. Hall, 1998
AUTOMATICITY AND THE BRAIN: The brain can do many automatic things at a time, but only one nonautomatic thing at a time. Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy P. Hall, 1998
WORD WALLS: Tell students that one way to practice words is to say them aloud in a rhythmic chanting fashion. The brain responds to sound and rhythm. Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy P. Hall, 1998
WORD WALLS: Chant words, cheerleader style from the word wall. Emphasize the hard to spell words in our English language. (Illogical words but very high frequency) Examples: braid, laid paid---said tray, stray, pray---they mend, tend, send---friend DONT JUST HAVE A WORD WALL, DO A WORD WALL EVERYDAY! Cunningham, Dottie Hall, 1998) Chant It! Cheer It!
Guided Reading Purpose: To build comprehension and fluency with reading, and to introduce students to a variety of literature. Total Time: 30-40 minutes Segment One: Before Reading Segment Two: Reading: Flexible Grouping: Paired (Partner), Individual, Small groups reading with the teacher, Three- ring circus, Book Club Groups Teacher Coaching Segment Three: After Reading Research: NCTE 2003
Teaching Comprehension in the Information Age Informational text (nonfiction) presents different kinds of comprehension obstacles for younger readers. Many young readers have trouble following the organizational structures of nonfiction text. (Reutzel and Cooter 2004)
Teaching Comprehension in the Information Age More time in the primary grades devoted to teaching comprehension using informational (nonfiction) texts. Research: Low socioeconomic children read informational text 3.6 minutes / day on average. –(Pearson & Duke, 2002)
Modeled Reading According to Dr. Patricia Cunningham, teachers need to read aloud daily from four types of text: Fiction (Everybody Books) Non-Fiction Poetry Classics (Old Favorites)
Self-Selected Reading Purpose: To build fluency in reading, to allow students to read and enjoy text that is appropriate to their own independent reading levels, and to build confidence in students as readers. Total Time: 30-40 minutes Segment One: Teacher Read-Aloud Segment Two: Independent Reading and Conferencing: Segment Three: Sharing
Advantages of the Four Blocks Framework The model is considered Best Practices The framework helps teachers maximize time on task and better organize the teaching / learning environment. Active engagement of students alone makes a tremendous difference. –Sigmon, 2001