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History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired Theresa L. Kestner Central Institute for the Deaf 2001 Advisor: Pam Zacher.

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Presentation on theme: "History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired Theresa L. Kestner Central Institute for the Deaf 2001 Advisor: Pam Zacher."— Presentation transcript:

1 History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired Theresa L. Kestner Central Institute for the Deaf 2001 Advisor: Pam Zacher

2 Introduction Music is many-sided in its effect on the human body. It is a medium of outward activity and inward experience; it relates directly to speech and language, to communication and thought, to bodily expression and dance, to a range of emotions, and to the perception and recognition of sound patterns and forms (Robbins & Robbins, 1980). Music is many-sided in its effect on the human body. It is a medium of outward activity and inward experience; it relates directly to speech and language, to communication and thought, to bodily expression and dance, to a range of emotions, and to the perception and recognition of sound patterns and forms (Robbins & Robbins, 1980).

3 History 1837, Lowell Mason 1837, Lowell Mason 1848, William Wolcott Turner & David Ely Bartlett 1848, William Wolcott Turner & David Ely Bartlett 1877, NY School for the Deaf 1877, NY School for the Deaf 1802, Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard 1802, Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard , IL School for the Deaf , IL School for the Deaf 1988, Gaulladet University 1988, Gaulladet University

4 Speech Skills (Rhythm) Research studies have focused on rhythm activities and perception Research studies have focused on rhythm activities and perception Gives them an idea of rhythm, accent, and fluency; also helps coordination, poise and balance Gives them an idea of rhythm, accent, and fluency; also helps coordination, poise and balance Listening helps to stimulate and strengthen ability to utilize residual hearing; lays foundation for rhythm of language Listening helps to stimulate and strengthen ability to utilize residual hearing; lays foundation for rhythm of language

5 Teaching Rhythm Nursery rhymes or dancing Nursery rhymes or dancing Percussion instruments based on the Orff Method Percussion instruments based on the Orff Method Use entire bodies in many rhythmic experiences Use entire bodies in many rhythmic experiences

6 Speech Skills (Singing & Pitch) Used primarily for group recreation purposes Used primarily for group recreation purposes Means for self-expression or as a means of improving speech & language development Means for self-expression or as a means of improving speech & language development Provides personal satisfaction and a source of shared social pleasure Provides personal satisfaction and a source of shared social pleasure

7 Improving Vocal Accuracy Early vocal training Early vocal training Appropriate models and feedback Appropriate models and feedback Structured practice Structured practice Additional time with daily vocal exercises and vocal ensembles Additional time with daily vocal exercises and vocal ensembles Instrumental accompaniment Instrumental accompaniment Kodály hand signals Kodály hand signals

8 Speech Skills (Breath) Ability to copy breathing patterns easily when singing in a group under no pressure Ability to copy breathing patterns easily when singing in a group under no pressure

9 Auditory Skills Auditory training: to teach the complex task of listening Auditory training: to teach the complex task of listening Can become rigid and highly structured, therefore, music is highly motivating Can become rigid and highly structured, therefore, music is highly motivating Melodic aspects of language contain a great deal of information Melodic aspects of language contain a great deal of information Natural motivation to use residual hearing Natural motivation to use residual hearing

10 Social Skills Group music making promotes sharing, mutual attentiveness, responsibility to the group, and an enjoyable sense of partnership in activities that demand a cooperative effort for successful accomplishment (Robbins & Robbins, 1980). Group music making promotes sharing, mutual attentiveness, responsibility to the group, and an enjoyable sense of partnership in activities that demand a cooperative effort for successful accomplishment (Robbins & Robbins, 1980).

11 Participants/Procedures 30 oral and state schools for the hearing impaired around the U.S. 30 oral and state schools for the hearing impaired around the U.S. Given approximately 3 weeks, after 2 weeks phone calls were made Given approximately 3 weeks, after 2 weeks phone calls were made 24 were completed (80% return rate) - 12 oral & 12 state 24 were completed (80% return rate) - 12 oral & 12 state

12 Categories Music programs offered Music programs offered Nature of instructor Nature of instructor Length of program Length of program Age of students Age of students Methodologies used Methodologies used Noted improvements Noted improvements Other programs offered Other programs offered Additional comments Additional comments

13 1. Do you provide a music program for your students? 67% oral schools 67% oral schools 42% state schools 42% state schools

14 2. What is offered under your music program? 69% dance or movement instruction 69% dance or movement instruction 54% instrumental instruction 54% instrumental instruction 54% vocal instruction 54% vocal instruction 31% music theory classes 31% music theory classes 38% other 38% other

15 3. Who provides the instruction for the music program? 54% teachers of the hearing impaired 54% teachers of the hearing impaired 23% regular education teachers 23% regular education teachers Music therapist Music therapist Dance instructor Dance instructor Volunteer Volunteer

16 4. How long have you offered your music program? 4 months to 165 years 4 months to 165 years Typical length: 2 to 20 years Typical length: 2 to 20 years 5. What age of students participate in the music program? 2 to 21 years 2 to 21 years

17 6. Do hearing children participate in the music program? 63% oral schools 63% oral schools 20% state schools 20% state schools

18 7. What are the primary objectives of the music program? 77% curriculum enrichment 77% curriculum enrichment 69% musical skills 69% musical skills 69% speech & auditory skills69% speech & auditory skills 62% music appreciation62% music appreciation 54% music performance54% music performance 8% music composition8% music composition 23% other23% other

19 8. Which teaching materials &/or methodologies have been most helpful? Dalcroze eurhythmicsDalcroze eurhythmics Orff MethodOrff Method General education music curriculaGeneral education music curricula Folk dance materialsFolk dance materials Nursery rhymesNursery rhymes C.D.s of various music typesC.D.s of various music types SMILE programSMILE program Raffis musicRaffis music Keyboard lessonsKeyboard lessons Various instrumentsVarious instruments

20 9. Have you noticed a change in your students since starting your music program? 64% auditory skills64% auditory skills 64% social/emotional skills64% social/emotional skills 55% speech skills55% speech skills 27% academic performance27% academic performance 23% other23% other

21 10. What other programs do you offer? 57% art57% art 53% physical education53% physical education 50% computers50% computers 20% other20% other

22 11. Other comments Hearing impaired children should have opportunities to enjoy and appreciate music just as their hearing age mates do. Hearing impaired children should have opportunities to enjoy and appreciate music just as their hearing age mates do. I find our deaf children (like most people) respond to music through hearing, yes, but mostly they respond to something that happens inside, in their hearts and feelings. I find our deaf children (like most people) respond to music through hearing, yes, but mostly they respond to something that happens inside, in their hearts and feelings. Music is an integral part of our curriculum and is used in daily classroom instruction as an important vehicle for language development. Music is an integral part of our curriculum and is used in daily classroom instruction as an important vehicle for language development.

23 Conclusions Most effective way: have more successful music programs Most effective way: have more successful music programs Parents: enthusiastically support music Parents: enthusiastically support music Educators: mixed attitudes Educators: mixed attitudes Professionals: already made changes, now need to include children who are hearing impaired Professionals: already made changes, now need to include children who are hearing impaired


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