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Erica S. Horace Greeley High School

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1 Erica S. Horace Greeley High School
Postmodernism in Post-World War II and Post-Vietnam Europe and It’s Development Picture- Gerhard Richter, oil on canvas Erica S. Horace Greeley High School

2 Post- World War II Art Movements
Influences of Postmodernism Post- World War II Art Movements Modernism Conceptualism/ Dadaism Post-structuralism

3 Modernism Working towards pure abstraction
Roots Of Post-modernism Modernism Modernism time period: Emerges in Europe, then in America and other countries Rejection of Traditional forms of art Reaction to technology, new philosophy, especially psychology. Focus on new expression of emotion, and traditional ideology. Mark making, and brushstrokes taken into consideration for effect and internal meaning of the piece. World War I had a major impact on subject matter. Painters like Otto Dix concentrated on the human sacrifice of the war and it’s horrors. Working towards pure abstraction in perhaps the most important idea taken from modernism and expanded on in postmodernism. Many of contemporary postmodern projects are obscure and minimal giving the impression that it is abstract. But a significant part of postmodernity is that it brought concept back to work and made the process of creating just as important. Artists include, Picasso, Klimt, Shiele, Monet, de Kooning, Kline, Stella, Johns and Mondrian. Included Mini-movements like Abstract Expressionism, minimalism, surrealism and impressionism, all effected postmodernist subject matter. Working towards pure abstraction

4 Conceptualism & Dadaism
Roots Of Post-modernism Conceptualism & Dadaism 1940’s, today Expanded into new media and new forms of expression Artists believed that ideas in work are the art in the piece itself. Conceptualism expanded from Dadaism because it used it’s anti-traditional art sentiment to express it’s ideas in a non-physical manner. Dadaism attempted to escape the underlying meaning of work and create ugliness that means nothing. In Conceptualism, the artwork is in the idea itself, the physicality of the work is not important, unlike old European painters. Often artists do not even make the work themselves, but have it made for them. For example, Jeff Koons, or Damien Hirst. Picture- Jeff Koons, American Conceptualism’s roots postmodernism in that it uses new media to express theory. Installation, multi-media art, video, sound and 3-d found art evolves from conceptualism. Conceptualism, to the viewer at first is often abstract, however the artist’s intent is most significant to discovering the meaning of the work. Often controversial, most artists do not make the work themselves or have a group of students or helpers, like Andy Warhol’s factory, to help them create the art. Artists include, Marc Duchamp, Joseph Kosuth, and Ray Johnson. Postmodernism shows that in looking at situations from all points of view, no one is correct, meaning nothing is the truth. It’s subjective.

5 Post- Structuralism France in the 1960’s
Roots Of Post-modernism Post- Structuralism France in the 1960’s Reaction to Structuralism Writing movement, including writers like Derrida, Foucault and Kristeva Focus on the greater meaning in text by examining all sides of theory. Use work as a reflection upon the reader, read the text in a “self- conscious” way Influenced by the Enlightenment Anti- Humanists- Post-structuralists reject interpretation of old text. They search for a new meaning. Post-structuralism in referenced as the main pre-curser to postmodernism because postmodernism elaborated on many of the ideas in post-structuralism. Looking at texts, situations, or theories from all points of view is at the heart of postmodern theory. In finding the deeper meanings, one has to learn something about themselves, reflect on it and interprut work from their own perspective. There is more than one meaning to everything. Pre-curser to Postmodernism theory

6 Postmodernism Main Content, Philosophy and Development

7 Postmodernism Usually referred to by time period, 1960 – Contemporary today Rejection of modernism standards of how work should be made, especially “impulsive expressionistic” qualities. Attacks ultimate truth in work, believing that the truth is from all different points of view. Eventually rejects poststructuralist meaning, that the truth is insignificant. Expands into many different areas of art, including film and music. For example, John Cage and Stanley Kubrick. Rejects genres and labeling, tries to eliminate High v. Low art Expands into multi-media type projects Installations, Performance, Photography, Sound and Video installations, found-art, painting, sculpture, and environmental installations. Picture- Jeanne-Claude Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, Miami, Fla. Postmodernism is the ultimate rejection of a traditional way of thinking. This thinking method is that there are clues left by the artist or writer that gives way to their truth or moral. Instead, postmodernists believe that there are many truths, all individual to the viewer and the experience is different from person to person. This experience is significant in determining one meaning in the work itself. Later postmodernist attempt to stray away from finding any truth and work towards conceptual abstraction. The use of multi-media and performance is important because artists in this genre believe that the concept or idea is more than just a painting and the viewer often needs all senses to experience a whole concept.

8 Postmodernism Individuality and Identity
All artists and viewers are different with their own perspective. Cultural factors affect each person individually. Human beings are full of potential. Postmodernists tackle issues of identity like: Feminism Race Gender Sexuality Postmodernists place a large emphasis on originality and creativity within each individual. Creating their own new boundaries. Expands major ideas of the Post-structuralist theory. Postmodernism started with many of the smaller art movements in America, and expanded into literature and philosophy then art in Europe. Today, some of the most famous postmodern and contemporary artists are from Europe and their roots influence their ground-breaking original work. The object of a lot of postmodern artwork is to destabilize the meaning of the piece. Upon looking at a work, the viewer might recognize a picture from the media or an image that has a reference already with it, the artists may change the object so that it is a new and original image to the viewer, forcing the viewer to see the work as a new experience.

9 Joseph Beuys B. 1921 in Germany D. 1986
Media: Drawings, Performance, Lecture, Paintings Considered the father of everything postmodern Believed that “Man is sculpture” and rejuvenated performance art. Also felt that the audience is part of the piece. Experimented with new materials Explored the fourth dimension, time. Famous for his lectures and Chalk board diagrams. Some believe that Joseph Beuys, a radical thinker and creator out of Germany in the 1960’s was a major influence on most other post-modern artists, however not considered entirely postmodern himself. He re-invented art into a variety of media, and re-introduced performance into the new art world. His re-visitation into old works by Marx, and even Machiavelli, started postmodernist thinking about what those works mean about the world today.

10 Joseph Beuys Used philosophy in work often and questioned the meaning of everything. Became more political in the 1960’s. Interested in nature and natural sciences Believed in the power of institution Often religious in work, said that his work was a healing process in nature for himself. Considered art as a medium for social and political change Lecture Quotes: “ Everything is in a state of change.” “ A people is not a Race.” “Self-Aware man” Beuys was also very influenced by the writings of Nietzsche, which is appropriate because Nietzsche's negative view of the world eventually turns into a general theme of nothingness. Beuys believed in the significance of objects taking on a new meaning, so he leaves his chalk boards behind as a record of his lectures and a new piece of art. All of these points in Beuys’ theory and work are noteworthy in defining postmodernism.

11 Coyote, "I Like America and America Likes Me , Tate Modern, GB 1974
Emerging from dadaism, his take on projects and political affiliations are often ridiculous and meant to be absurd. He once made a suggestion that the Berlin wall be raised for better proportion. Most of his work is off beat and disturbing.

12 Coyote, "I Like America and America Likes Me , Tate Modern, GB 1974

13 How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare ,Düsseldorf, 1965
In this performance, Beuys sat around in the gallery covered in honey, and holding a variety of materials, including gold leaf and a dead hare. Playing with texture and mood, Beuys created a little bizarre world for himself were he was able to be in his element, making it an important healing experience which eventually touched the audience. How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare ,Düsseldorf, 1965

14 The felt suit meets Beuy’s dimensions and is looked at as a self-portrait. However, Beuys takes it to the 3-d level and makes it more tangible to the audience. Quote: “Not even physical warmth is meant... Actually I meant a completely different kind of warmth, namely spiritual or evolutionary warmth or the beginning of an evolution.” Felt Suit, 1970

15 Action Piece , Tate Modern, 1972
With his roots as being a teacher, Beuys strives to convince you in a lecture. He gets the audience involved and uses his writings and drawings as a method of communication to the audience. Action Piece , Tate Modern, 1972

16 Sledge stampede , Stockholm, 1971
His work, on top of being political, come from a personal space. He was in the army for quite a while and that military background adds not only to his work material, but his personality and perception of death. Sledge stampede , Stockholm, 1971

17 Beuys’ Fat Chair directly commented on the way things are supposed to be in a society. He believed that challenging society is important for it to eventually change. The fat chair was made out of wood, metal and actual fat. Fat Chair 1964

18 Untitled (Sun State) NY 1974
Example of his chalk board after a lecture, often displayed as a work of art itself. Untitled (Sun State) NY 1974

19 Eurasia Siberian Symphony, NY, 1966
Graphically as well as aesthetically, Beuys portrays his point with gracefulness and modern edge. Using his favorite animal, he silently makes a lecture about Eurasia. Eurasia Siberian Symphony, NY, 1966

20 7000 Oaks was a 5-year attempt to plant 7000 trees as a comment on the way people work in their everyday lives. Part of this piece is the process of the aesthetic product, and that postmodern concept was continued into many works today. 7000 Oaks, Kassel, Germany, 1982

21 Vanessa Beecroft B. 1969 in Genoa, Italy, lives in NYC
Media: Performance, Installation and Drawings Beecroft uses her performances as an expression of herself and the society we live in today. Her subjects, mostly young women, sometimes models, represent femininity at its most vulnerable state. Her work is radical and questions many of contemporary ideas, yet most of the significance behind the work is left to the viewer. In Postmodernism, the artist attempts to redesign the meaning of a piece. By presenting a work that seems to be full of meaning, she changes it to mean nothing, in a stark apathetic performance that is uncomfortable for the viewer to watch.

22 Vanessa Beecroft She questions, in her performances Beauty Eroticism
Purity Femininity She looks at her work as a “live sculpture” or “live painting” She is influenced by many of the classic painters of mannerism and painters like Rembrandt and Della Francesca. But she used the tradition of performance and changes it significantly to be a piece about the modern world. When she moved from Italy to America and her work became more popular she started to use real models and designers for the clothing that the models would wear in the performances. Her work crosses borders because it could be considered fashion art based on the designers who have taken an interest in her. For example, Prada, Tom Ford, Dolce & Gabanna, Blahnik and Helmut Lang.

23 This is one of her first pieces and still seems to be one of her most significant. Beecroft has exercise bulimia and her eating disorder has affected her since her teenage years. In her work she often hires girls with eating disorders to reflect her own feeling towards it. The Book of Food, Milan, 1993

24 VB40, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia
The models, during the performance, had little to no direction except not to talk and for up to three hours the models wonder (if not told to stand still) expressionless, in their new environment. VB40, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia

25 VB40, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia

26 VB35, Guggenheim Museum, NY 1998
The object of these performances is to achieve the same experience one would have at a monument. Some would also call this shock art, were the intent is to throw an uncomfortable experience at the viewer in an overwhelming space. VB35, Guggenheim Museum, NY 1998

27 VB26, Galleria Lia Rumma, Naples, Italy 1997
All that is left after the performances are video footage and more frequently, photographs of the models at significant moments. VB26, Galleria Lia Rumma, Naples, Italy 1997

28 VB30, Il Biennial, Site Santa Fe, NM 1997

29 VB21, Galleria Massimo De Carlo, Milan, Italy 1996
Perhaps one of the most post-modern elements of Beecroft’s work is that it is not within one genre. Her cross-over work whether it is photography, sculpture, installation or performance, she strives to make the viewer experience without a label. VB21, Galleria Massimo De Carlo, Milan, Italy 1996

30 VB12, Fuori Uso 95, Pescara, Italy 1995

31 VB16, Deitch Projects, NY 1996

32 VB16, Deitch Projects, NY 1996

33 VB24, Gallerie Ghislaine Hussenot, Paris, France 1996
Her work, commenting on beauty, uses cliché images like a woman in a fur coat to stray the viewer to a different reference, however spins the image to mean something entirely different to the viewer. VB24, Gallerie Ghislaine Hussenot, Paris, France 1996

34 Ilya Kabakov B. 1933 in Russia
Media: Total Installations, writings, design, sculpture Lived during Soviet Russia He war freed by government from soviet socialist realism art, and made autobiographical work. Work included huge installations in apartments and writings that go along with the piece so the viewer gets a full experience at the installation. Believed language was most important in communication and expression. His work is often dark and extreme making the viewer sad or uncomfortable when looking at it. His work is also considered Russia conceptual art so there is emphasis on the idea of the whole piece. Used his chaotic environments to portray the hostile suppression he went though in Russia during the cold war. Incorporates shot tales with work in short story form, to direct the viewer to what they are looking at.

35 The Man who Flew into Spacec from his apartment , Moscow Apartment, 1968
Kabakov uses the fictional characters in his work to portray political power struggles within governments worldwide.

36 The Man who Flew into Space from his apartment , Moscow Apartment, 1968
He incorporates authentic soviet posters into almost all of his work to directly establish that his work his about his oppression.

37 Incident at the Museum of Water Music Ronald Feldman Gallery, NY 1992
He incorporates many different forms of media to give the viewer the total expirence as well as taking the viewer through a corridor or a maze like room, to look around, making it more realistic. Incident at the Museum of Water Music  Ronald Feldman Gallery, NY 1992

38 School no. 6 , Moscow Apartment, 1993
This work occupies the entire building and it is recreated as a former Soviet Union school house. It was a gift from Kabakov to the Chinati Foundation. The writings that go along with the work are past experiences of students who used to attend.

39 Ten Characters , Ronald Feldman Gallery, NY 1988
His overwhelming environments take the viewers common perception of the piece based on the visual elements and changes it completely with the writing that goes along with it. Creating an overall mood. He often works with his wife, Emilia. Ten Characters , Ronald Feldman Gallery, NY 1988

40 Kitchen # 2 voices , Ronald Feldman Gallery, NY 1988
He also does temporary smaller installation pieces complete with paintings and sculpture. His incorporation of writing and text, mixed with his choice subject matter of oppression and individual identity within a radical government makes him a postmodern example. Quote: “Everything is only a word” Kitchen # 2 voices , Ronald Feldman Gallery, NY 1988

41 Gerhard Richter B. 1932 in Germany Media: Paintings
Influenced by Beuys, worked with him often. His use of media images in his work mixed with his aesthetic design choices make his work exceptionally postmodern. His versatility in his work is often praised by critics Photorealism is a common method he uses his favorite color of gray because it is the one color that most people don’t have the personal reference like other colors. He subtly alters the viewers perception of the painting and changes variety. Simplicity is important to him

42 Woman Descending and Kvinde med paraply, LA 1978
Richter, at the beginning of his working period, did more political works than abstract or subtle, like the “October 18, 1977 Red Army Faction Terrorists” painting. He then went on to take media images and use a method of silk-screening to blur the image a little and render it unrecognizable. Woman Descending and Kvinde med paraply, LA 1978

43 His women series is one of his most disturbing because his altering of the images create a surreal effect to the original picture. Frau Marlow 1964

44 Earlier in his career, with his political works, he make subtle statements about war and oppressive leadership as well as tackling major social issues like death and identity. He loved using media images and mirrors. Hitler 1964

45 Stragtrager /coffin bearers 1962

46 Onkel Rudi/ Uncle Rudi 1965

47 He is renown for his subtle simplicity, shown through his monotone paintings in most of hs work, especially in his still life phase. Candle 1982

48 Skull 1983

49 Apfel (Apples) 1984

50 Through photorealism in oil paint, Richter achieves a realistic portrait of women and other objects that most artists strive for. The realism is often confusing to the viewer because it is blurred a little to make it seem like a fuzzy photograph. The mood of the piece is very important because it portrays a casual intensity as a moment in life captured more frequently in photographs. Lesende 1994

51 Abstraktes Bild (Abstract Picture) 1992
His work evolved into many abstract paintings straying away from his initial references. Abstraktes Bild (Abstract Picture) 1992

52 Meditation, 1986

53 Untitled, 1988

54 Abstract Painting, 1979

55 Untitled (green), 1968

56 Fiction, 1976

57 Spiegal, grau/ Mirror, Grey 1991
His monotone paintings transformed latter on in his career to contemporary minimal paintings and installations which strive to mean nothing to the viewer. To him it may have importance, however the viewer is meant to know nothing and experience it for themselves, which is why many of the paintings in this time are either concrete or untitled. Spiegal, grau/ Mirror, Grey 1991

58 Three Greys, One upon the other, 1966

59 5 Doors (II) 1967

60 Passage 1968

61 Kiki Smith Feminism drives most of her work
B in Germany, lives in America Media: Sculpture, printmaking, photogravure Feminism drives most of her work She tends to re-direct thoughts on femininity a viewer may have and distort or exploit them to take on an entirely different meaning. Known for her ability to shock with her sculptures Questions sexuality, health and purity in her work Tackles world issues like AIDS Interested in anatomy and drawings from nature Her sculptures have been described as surreal realism were the are anatomically correct but a little altered for emphasis.

62 Her delicate nature drawings seem to be closest to her
Her delicate nature drawings seem to be closest to her. She enjoys making prints from her drawings and tends to incorporate them into her small-scale installations of sculpture. Peacock. 1997

63 The Fourth Day: Destruction of Birds. 1997

64 Silent Work, 1992 Urogenitals. 1994
Her anatomy drawings tend to be very shocking and explicit but within them she questions the nature of feminine purity and beauty. Her postmodern career is looked at as being strong in her consistent originality in her thoughts on these issues. Shock art is also an important aspect of the postmodern period.

65 She combines multi-media into her prints and drawings
She combines multi-media into her prints and drawings. For example this piece includes photogravure, etching, and sanding. Free Fall. 1994

66 Las Animas. 1997

67 Possession is Nine-Tenths of the Law, 1985

68 How I know I’m Here, 1985

69 Lucy's Daughters, 1990 Smith says that her hero is Lucy, the first hominid found whose foot prints were preserved for thousands of years. She created a small installation piece filled with small sewn and printed pillows of all of Lucy’s daughters. By which perhaps she was commenting on how we live our lives now and how we used to.

70 Untitled (train) 1994

71 Untitled (Butterfly) 1994

72 Woman on Pyre, 2001

73 Mary Magdalene, 1994

74 Cresant Moon 2002

75 Notes in Time, 1979 and other work by Smith
Often works with fellow printmaker, Nancy Spero for design purposes in a show. Spero is known for her scroll paintings with similar subject matter to Smith. Overall, Smith’s work is profound in her statements about womanhood. She takes all the clichés about purity in womanhood and challenges them with new imagery and content, making her an influential contemporary artist. Notes in Time, 1979 and other work by Smith

76 Damien Hirst B. 1965 in England
Media: Installations, sculpture, paintings, lithography Questions fundamental life issues like birth, death and love Contradicts to confuse the viewer and make the viewer reconsider evidence in work. Conceptual, doesn’t do much of his own work Provocative, causes much controversy, especially with animal rights. Questions beauty. Can something so horribly gruesome be beautiful and aesthetically pleasing? Shock Art His work is known to be sensational, which come might consider trendy and negative. He was among the few who put concept back into minimalism. Contradictions in work is also a common postmodern theme. Hirst has been known to contradict himself often and that is part of his work. The idea is the most significant aspect of his work to him. Some say that Hirst has a sick sense of humor and this is portrayed in his work. One would be unable to place him into a single genre considering his subject matter and conceptions, making him postmodern.

77 Snowblind, 1998 Drugs and other social problems are a common part of his work. His drug series is simplistic in form but complex in execution, although he didn’t create most of them, but had others do it for him.

78 Pharmacy, Sotheby’s England 1992
His Pharmacy installation is among his most significant and groundbreaking. He created a whole ironic world that is both aesthetically engaging and conceptually complete. His rather negative outlook of the world is portrayed in this piece. There are an array of medications organized specifically, and the neon light from the ceiling is supposed to represent God. All of which seems to center around his obsession with death.

79 LSD 2000 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide 2000

80 One Thousand Years, 1990 His more famous installations are animal related. Although they may be dark and disturbing, they are fascinating to look at in person because of their meticulous placement.

81 Some comfort gained from the acceptance on the coherent lies in everything 1996
He is known for his formaldehyde containers with perfectly sliced animals still intact and fresh suspended in the blue or green liquid. Critics have had mixed reviews because they aren’t sure what to think of them. Whether it is animal cruelty or genius art, the pieces are interesting to look at and some might think, beautiful?

82 Away from the Flock 1994

83 The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living 1991

84 This little piggy went to market, this little piggy stayed at home 1996

85 Mother and Child Divided 1996

86 "Where are we going. Where do we come from. Is there a reason

87 Horror at Home 1995

88 The Virgin Mother 2005 Hymn 1996

89 Addicted to Crack 2005 Vivisection 2004-05
These are some examples of his later works. Similar to Gerhard Richter, photo realism is used to portray something very real and tangible to the viewer. Drug addiction, animal cruelty, death and other topics are common in society today, they may be disturbing and comfortable to look at but art isn’t just about decoration. In doing these blunt portraits, Hirst is communicating to the artist in a quiet voice which may not be biased. Addicted to Crack 2005 Vivisection

90 Christo and Jeanne-Claude
Jeanne-Claude B in France Christo- B.1935 in Bulgaria Media: Environmental Installation Install temporary art into nature to give a new perspective of environment. Encourages preservation of monuments or nature Including wrapping buildings or monuments, covering water or greenery on site, or installing sculpture in a natural environment. Christo had a Marxist education. Studied environmental issues One of the most post-modern aspects of the two of them, is the process they are willing to undergo before the project comes to life. Claude’s belief in Christo’s work is important to her and that is why she deals with the finances of the projects. Makes political statements about the preservation of environment and structure. Postmodern: Looking at the world in a new unrecognizable way. Environment conscious--Part of work is the process of creative and installment

91 Christo’s Sketches As a husband and wife team, Christo and Jeanne-Claude work together to come up with initial ideas and sketches. Jeanne-Claude’s main role is to sell all the sketches and raise money for their projects. These detailed sketches are often all that is left of the temporary installation and are quite detailed and well-rendered.

92 Reichstag in Berlin, 1995 100,000 square meters of fireproof polypropylene fabric were used to veil the building. Parliament had to be convinced in person by Christo and Jeanne- Claude to go ahead with the project.

93 The Umbrellas in California and Japan, 1990
They re-invent the environment to make it unavoidable, as well as overwhelming. 1,340 blue screens and 1,760 yellow screens were set up simultaneously. .

94 Valley Curtain, Rifle, Colorado, 1972
This project was one the most famous land installations. The curtain was only hung for 28 hours but the wind became a threat so they had to take it down. .

95 Valley Curtain, Rifle, Colorado, 1972

96 Surrounded Islands, 1983 Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida
6.5 million square feet of pink fabric was used. They protected the coast line of the island because of a rare species of plant that was on it. They also used the project as a way to clean up the coast line if all the litter. Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida

97 Running Fence, 1976 Sonoma and Marin Counties, California
The fence was 18 feet high and 24 1/2-miles long, following the Bodega Bay. The setting of the work is very important to the couple, they had to receive permission from many families and the government to go ahead with the re-inventing work. Sonoma and Marin Counties, California

98 The Gates, 1979-2005 Central Park, New York
7,503 gates were in stalled on 23 miles of path. The dates of the work represents the date of initial idea of the piece to the day of completion in 2005.

99 The Gates, This project was the largest project Christo and Jeanne-Claude ever imagined.

100 The Gates, In the winter, it made people re-discover the wonders of Central Park and became a new tourist attraction. Jeanne-Claude and Christo emphasize all that is postmodern. Their extreme conceptual ideas, political influence, emphasis on the process of creation, and modern aesthetic taste make them the ultimate example of postmodernism. All that is missing is the shocking content of Kiki Smith and Damien Hirst, the eccentricity of Joseph Beuys, the experience of Ilya Kabakov and the simplistic complications of Gerhard Richter and they would be perfect.

101 the end. Bibliography The 20th Century Art Book. London: Phaiden, 1996. Abrams, Harry N. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. NY: Times Mirror Co., 1995. Art and Artists. London: Thames and Hudson LTD., 1994. The Art Book. London: Phaiden, 1994. "Art History: Dadaism." World Wide Arts Resources. 5 Feb May 2006 <>. "Artists." Artcyclopedia. May 2006 <>. Barrett, Terry. Criticizing Photographs. California: Mayfield Co., 1996. "Conceptualism." World Wide Arts Resources. 5 Feb May 2006 <>. Hinteler, Walter. "Dare to Bare." Able 2 Know. 13 Mar May 2006 <>. MoMA Highlights. London: Thames and Hudson LTD., 2004. Papadakis, Andreas. New Art. NY: Izzoli International Publications Inc., 1991. Riemschneider, Burkhard. Art Now. Italy: Taschen, 2001. "The Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art. May 2006 < "The Collection." Museum of Modern Art. May 2006 < "The Collection." Tate Modern Museum. May 2006 < Wikepedia. May 2006 < Made with

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