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European Art Movements of the 20th Century

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1 European Art Movements of the 20th Century
Presented by: Cameron M. and Laura H. Sophomore EHAP Ms. Pojer Horace Greeley High School Chappaqua, NY June 9, 2006

2 Essential Question… How Did Cubism, Dada, & Surrealism reflect the Anti-War Attitudes of 20th Century Europe?

3 Cubism 1900’s – 1920’s

4 Cubism Goals: To devalue previous art movements through a dramatic change To separate their art from the conventional understanding of perspective Picasso and Braque worked next to each other in the same studio during their cubist period with almost identical styles Unlike Expressionism or Fauvism, after the Blue Period, Cubism was based more on experimenting with structure and less on expressing emotion One of the most influential art movements of 20th century Along with this, viewpoint is important throughout all the different types of Cubism Abstract

5 Paul Cézanne ( ) Known as the artist who acted as a bridge between Impressionism and Cubism Used repeated, regular brush strokes and depth perception Paintings were said to resist the logic of space and gravity Lower Left, Apples, Peaches, Pears, and Grapes, Paul Cezanne ( ) Upper Right, Card Players and Girl, Paul Cezanne ( ) Questioned the techniques of painting in the 19th century Nickname: the father of modern painting Born in the south of France friends with Emile Zola (Dreyfus Affair)

6 Paul Cézanne ( ) Middle, Montagne Sainte Victoire, Paul Cezanne (1885) (2nd of the series) Illustrates small regular brush strokes and bright colors to show light and shadows

7 Georges Braque ( ) Painted with bright colors and unassembled forms until 1908, but changed styles after he was injured in WWI Switched to a more cubist technique using light and perspective Worked with Picasso Analytic Cubism Used a collage technique Left, Viaduct Near L'Estaque, Georges Braque (1908) Born in Argenteuil in 1882 and raised in Le Havre Painted with a more logical technique First to use collages Added real elements to his paintings (sand) Enlisted in French Army head wound and couldn't paint Began to work with Pablo Picasso in developed similar techniques collage and papier colle

8 Georges Braque ( ) Wanted to create the sense of being able to move around within the painting Focused on different viewpoints Still life paintings from Lower Left, Still Life Pitchers, Georges Braque (1932) Right, Violin and Candlestick, Georges Braque (1910) Paris, (San Francisco Museum of Modern Art) Example of collage technique/geometric shapes to create depth Injured in WW1 and moved away from harsh cubism to a more synthetic form (most abstract cubism)

9 Georges Braque ( ) Left, Fruit Dish With Cards, Georges Braque (1908) collage Right, Large Nude, Georges Braque (1908) introduced real elements into work- sand and commercial lettering. Add real aspects of life to the “illusory” Proved that painting doesn’t have to have a connection to reality - can be completely abstract

10 Juan Gris Analytical cubism Papier collé Bright colors
Left, Breakfast, Juan Gris (1914) Right, Portrait of Picasso, Juan Gris (1912) Worked with Picasso until WW1

11 Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Considered greatest artist of 20th century
Created more than 20,000 pieces of art Three phases of his career: Blue Period Rose Period Protocubism Some of his paintings take on a surrealist quality Left, Three Musicians, Pablo Picasso (1921) Born in Spain child prodigy All three phases of his career occurred before he changed to cubism

12 Pablo Picasso’s Self-Portraits
Left, Self-Portrait, Pablo Picasso (1899) (age 18) Middle, Self-Portrait, Pablo Picasso (1907) (age 26) Right, Self-Portrait, Pablo Picasso (1972) (age 91) Shows transformation of styles

13 Picasso’s Blue Period Left, The Old Guitarist, Pablo Picasso (1903)
Right, Le Gourmet, Pablo Picasso (1901) Focused on outcasts, misfits and beggars Creates somber atmosphere

14 Picasso’s Blue Period, cont’d.
Left, La Vie, Pablo Picasso (1903) Middle, La Celestina, Pablo Picasso (1904) Right, The Tragedy, Pablo Picasso (1903) Casagemas, Picasso’s friend, committed suicide - start of the period Picasso in late teens and living away from home for first time – considered another factor of the Blue Period

15 Characteristics of Picasso’s Blue Period
Color used to express emotion Reflected Picasso’s mourning over the loss of a friend and stress of financial troubles Mysterious Right, Woman With Crossed Arms, Pablo Picasso (1901) Sold for $55 million in NY Picasso living in very poor conditions Always something “misty” and depressing about Blue Period works

16 Picasso’s Rose Period After his “Blue Period”, Picasso settled in Paris and began his exciting relationship with Fernande Olivier His happier mood influenced his works which began to include more reds and pinks, ending his Blue Period His art was also beginning to be sold so he was no longer in a financial crisis Carnival subjects were a favorite, as he visited the circus several times a week Upper Right, Harlequin’s Family With An Ape, Pablo Picasso, (1905) Lower Right, Lady With A Fan, Pablo Picasso (1905) Out of the depression! more earth tones usually circus people not in motion

17 Picasso’s Rose Period Left, Family of Saltimbanques, Pablo Picasso (1905) Right, The Girl with a Goat, Pablo Picasso (1906) Friendship with Fernande Olivier may be a factor which influenced his change of style from the Blue Period

18 Early Cubist Period Les Demoiselles de Avignon, 1907:
Portrayed female prostitution in Paris, featuring women who appear to be wearing masks Shows Picasso’s deep influence by the power shown in African and Oceanic tribal arts and culture In 1907, Picasso and Braque began a collaboration with a radical outlook and advance Both artists used bright colors, distortion, hard edges and flattened space Upper Right, Houses at L'Estaque, Georges Braque (1908) Lower Right, African and Oceanic Tribal masks Major transition from Rose Period -much more focus on perspective and shapes

19 Les Demoiselles de Avignon
Middle, Les Demoiselles de Avignon, Pablo Picasso (1907) Women in a brothel "first exorcism painting“ Picasso placing attention on the fear of sexual disease which was spreading through Paris Not traditional in composition - break away

20 The Neo-Classical Period
Occurred between WWI and WWII Relationship with Braque faded after WWI and changed to more classic methods of painting Represented a reaction to society's disappointment in and shock from the violence of the war Showed his mental stability and peace at the end of the Great War Upper Right, The Lovers, Pablo Picasso (1923) Reassurance of peace

21 Analytical Cubism Objects broken down into their components
Different viewpoints Conceptual over perceptual The height of the period involved paintings becoming too abstract to the point where they were not comprehensible Simplified painting methods through: Shape Color Line Right, The Guitar Player, Pablo Picasso (1910) Objects divided into small things in which put together make a whole Often used collage

22 Synthetic Cubism Brighter colors used Collages
Easier to interpret than analytical cubism More decorative and more visually pleasing Left, Woman in an Armchair, Pablo Picasso (1913) Oil cloth placed on canvas Real world on canvas

23 Later Cubist Period Used more colors and patterns than in earlier works Began his ‘friendly rivalry’ with Matisse Created many paintings reflecting the horrors of war and his response to the devastating realizations of concentration camps during WWII Upper Left, Dream, Pablo Picasso (1942) Lower Left, Girl Before A Mirror, Pablo Picasso (1932) Matisse developed Fauvism (expressive style) with Andre Derain

24 Picasso and War ( ) Guernica depicts the massacre after German planes bombed the city and 1,600 civilians on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War Used symbolism and the monochromatic colors to represent the desolation after the tragedy Bottom, Guernica, Pablo Picasso (1937) The Spanish general Francisco Franco allowed the Nazis to bomb the city in return for military aid 16 miles surrounding the entire city were destroyed Picasso declared that he wanted this work to return to Spain when the tyrant Franco was out of power, as it did in the 1970s after Franco died The Museum of Modern Art, grudgingly returned one of it’s most famous paintings to Spain as a result of Picasso’s will

25 Dadaism 1910’s – 1920’s

26 Dadaism Began in 1916 and ended in 1922
An international movement that claimed it was “against art” and was used to respond to the violence and irrationality of war Meant to attack and anger the bourgeoisie because of belief that it was the mentality and actions of this class that allowed war to occur Wanted art to reflect the upsetting and violent world as they saw it Art viewed as ridiculous and irrelevant Began in Zurich Switzerland (neutral during war) during WW1 Rejected standard art values

27 Dadaism Believed that art had become meaningless and purposeless because of war and violence. One rule: Don’t follow any rules. Main Themes: Element of Chance Irony Nihilistic nature Turning utilitarian into an aesthetic Right, Dada Conquers, Raoul Hausmann (1920) Other themes: irrationality, cynicism and randomness Contradicted all of the historical characteristics of “art”

28 Dadaism Major centers in: Zurich Paris Berlin Cologne New York City
The word “Dada” was supposedly randomly picked from the dictionary to reflect the sense of chance and absurdity that is reflected in this art movement Left, Conversation II, Francis Picabia (1922) Logic led people to wars Dada was breaking away from logic in order to ridicule and prevent wars

29 Jean Arp (1886-1966) The Artist… Born in Alsace, Germany
Developed a method of creating collages by dropping torn paper on the floor and basically leaving them as they fell He wanted to create art that was closer to nature and free from “the life of the hand” Collage with Squares Arranged According to the Laws of Chance ( ) Born in Alsace 1886 Created many 3D sculptures

30 Raoul Hausmann (1886-1971) The Artist… Born in Vienna, Austria
Moved to Berlin in 1900 and became one of the most important artists of the avant-garde art movements in the 1900s The orange background of The Art Critic is believed to be from one of his phonetic poem posters that were planned to be pasted on walls throughout Berlin. Left, The Art Critic, Raoul Hausmann ( ) Born in 1886 in Vienna, Austria Cofounder of the Berlin Dada movement in 1917

31 Raoul Hausmann (1886-1971) The Artist…
Used new means of expression including “phonetic poems” and photo-montages Founded Dada Berlin in 1918 with Richard Hulsenbeck and Frantz Jung Gave up painting in 1923 and experimented with other artistic ideas Right, Mechanical Head: The Spirit of Our Time, Raoul Hausmann (1919) Photomontage - collage with cut photos or wrappers glued down

32 Marcel DuChamp (1887-1968) The Artist…
Wanted to introduce an indifferent reaction and looked for objects which he believed would do so His Mona Lisa was the ultimate insult to previously accepted art values, as he added a moustache and goatee to the former Da Vinci classic Left, Mona Lisa: LHOOQ, Marcel DuChamp (1919) Shocking to society…very radical

33 DuChamp’s Ready-Mades
The Artist… Tried to negate and insult previous art styles Ready-Mades: The process of taking everyday and often mass-produced objects and adding DuChamp’s signature These works are valued as ‘high art’ today Left, Bicycle Wheel, Marcel DuChamp (1913) Ridiculed and eliminated the “uniqueness of art”

34 DuChamp’s Ready-Mades
Did this new type of art make all art appear better in contrast or cause all objects to be considered as art? His Fountain, one of the most famous ready-mades is a simple urinal on its back signed under the false name, 'R. Mutt 1917‘ One of the recreations sold for $1,762,500 Right, Fountain, Marcel DuChamp (1917) Art does not only have aesthetic worth After original was lost, 8 were recreated with DuChamp’s permission in 1964

35 Francis Picabia ( ) Left, L'Oeil Cacodylate, Francis Picabia (1921) Right, Hera, Francis Picabia (1929) Born in Paris (1879) Proto-Dada with mostly mechanical pictures ( ) Fun Fact: Owned 150 cars

36 Francis Picabia ( ) Left, Take Me There (M'amenez-y), Francis Picabia ( ) Right, Parade Amoureuse, Francis Picabia (1917) Picabia’s paintings have sold for as much as $1.6 mill

37 Decline of Dadaism By claiming that they were against art, they ended up creating their own form of art and this contradiction caused the eventual downfall of the entire Movement. Some say it declined because it was in danger of being accepted as art, which would oppose the entire reason behind the Movement. 1922: The Movement collapsed after increasing tension between different Dadaist centers. Going against original purpose Many contradictions

38 Decline of Dadaism Provided a base for Surrealism, which developed later Not solely pessimistic: Supported freeing the world of traditional views Wanted to create new forms of principles and rationality that clashed with the accepted art style of the Bourgeoisie class Perfect segue into surrealism

39 Surrealism 1920’s – 1950’s

40 Surrealism Movement toward the liberation of the mind by placing emphasis on the unconscious Gained momentum after the Dada Art Movement Led by Andre Breton Two types: Automatism Veristic Surrealism Lower Right, A Couple with Their Heads Full of Clouds, Salvador Dali (1936) Division originated from two different interpretations of Freud and Jung

41 Sigmund Freud His Influence:
Like his theories of psychoanalysis, surrealistic painting and writing explores the depths of the unconscious mind His ideas provided new subject matter upon which authors and artists could extend and elaborate Critics often analyze art and literature in Freudian terms Freudian psychology Dreams Sexual drive/unconscious

42 Carl Jung His Influence: Automatism
Should not judge, but instead accept the subconscious images as they come into consciousness, allowing them to be analyzed The unconscious has important messages for the conscious, but the unconscious speaks through images and symbols while the conscious speaks through language Surrealists tried to portray the idea of ‘psyche’ through their art People experience unconscious through Dreams Religious beliefs Art Friendships Romance, etc.

43 The Automatists Began with Paris Surrealists and then gained popularity in New York City and Montreal Abstract Focused more on feeling rather than analysis A method by which images of the subconscious reach the conscious Rejection of traditional art represented the rejection of social conformity Lines came from emotions embedded in the unconscious Follower: Carl Jung

44 Veristic Surrealists Make sense of their subconscious and paint with influence from the conscious state of mind Object was a metaphor of the reality in their subconscious mind Academic discipline Follower: Sigmund Freud

45 “The day I went to visit Sigmund Freud in his London exile, on the eve of his death…He said to me, ‘In classic paintings I look for the subconscious - in a surrealist painting, for the conscious’.’’ - Salvador Dalí Connection to Freudian psychology

46 Salvador Dalí ( ) “Each morning when I awake, I experience again a supreme pleasure - that of being Salvador Dalí.” Dalí Lower Left, Birth of A Divinity, Salvador Dali (1960) Upper Right, The Madonna of Port Lligat, Salvador Dali (1949) Born in Figueres in Catalonia, Spain (1904) Known for his unusual, dreamlike paintings

47 Salvador Dalí ( ) Middle, The Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dali (1931)

48 Salvador Dalí ( ) Full Name: Salvador Domenec Felip Jacint Dalí Domenech Left, Self Portrait Lower Right, Apparition of A Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach, Salvador Dali (1938) Many images include optical illusions

49 Soft Construction with Boiled Beans - Premonition of Civil War
Salvador Dalí ( ) Middle, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans - Premonition of Civil War, Salvador Dali (1936) Influenced pop art Soft Construction with Boiled Beans - Premonition of Civil War

50 Salvador Dalí ( ) Middle, Sacrament of the Last Supper, Salvador Dali (1955) Participated in The International Surrealist Exhibition and gave a speech in a scuba suit

51 Dalí’s Paranoiac Critical Method
A method of understanding the irrational by arranging it in a way that made sense "... A spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based on the systematic objectification of associations and delirious interpretations..." – Dalí Tricked himself into going insane in order to create a certain quality of art Salvador Dali picture Method used to bring out the imagination and creativity

52 Dalí’s Paranoiac Critical Method, cont’d.
His use of paranoiac-critical rationalization led him to become a celebrity who occasionally painted Actually went insane and stated, I don't take drugs. I am drugs! Idiosyncratic Right, Young Virgin Autosodomized by Her Own Chastity, Salvador Dali (1954) Stayed neutral during Spanish Civil War & fled “The only difference between me and the surrealists is that I am a surrealist” Insane!?!?

53 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Subjects in a vein of humor or fantasy
Distinctive color and form from Russian expressionism and French Cubism Imagery has poetic inspiration Upper Left, The Flying Carriage, Marc Chagall (1913) Right, Adam and Eve, Marc Chagall (1912) Born in Belarus Many paintings have reflections of Judaism

54 The Cattle Dealer, Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall, cont’d. Middle, The Cattle Dealer, Marc Chagall (1912) Rejected as a child Many of his paintings reflect his feelings about his childhood The Cattle Dealer, Marc Chagall

55 Stained Glass Window at United Nations
Marc Chagall, cont’d. Stained Glass Window at United Nations, Marc Chagall Works in the First National Bank Plaza (Illinois) and The Metropolitan Opera Stained Glass Window at United Nations

56 Rene Magritte ( ) My painting is visible images which conceal nothing; It does not mean anything, because mystery means nothing either, it is unknowable" Rene Magritte Tried to create art containing a juxtaposition of objects or an unusual mix, trying to give a new meaning to otherwise familiar possessions Left, Picture of Rene Magritte Born in Lessines Belgium (1898) Consummate technician

57 Rene Magritte (1898-1967) Belgian artist
Work portrays fantasy mixed with a surreal reality Left, The Lovers, Rene Magritte (1928) Right, Collective Invention, Rene Magritte (1934) Witty and smart paintings

58 Rene Magritte ( ) Upper Left, The False Mirror, Rene Magritte (1928) Lower Left, Betrayal of Images, Rene Magritte ( ) Translation: “This Is Not A Pipe” Right, The Son of Man, Rene Magritte (1964)

59 - Rousseau to Pablo Picasso
Henri Rousseau ( ) Left, Portrait of Joseph Brummer, Henri Rousseau (1909) Right, The Sleeping Gypsy, Henri Rousseau (1897) Born in Laval ”no teacher other than nature”…taught himself Famous for jungle paintings (but never actually saw a jungle..lived in France)   “We are the two great painters of this era; you are in the Egyptian style, I in the modern style.” - Rousseau to Pablo Picasso

60 Giorgio DeChirico ( ) "To become truly immortal, a work of art must escape all human limits: logic and common sense will only interfere. But once these barriers are broken, it will enter the realms of childhood visions and dreams." - Italian Surrealist Painter, Giorgio DeChirico Left, The Archeologists, Giorgio DeChirico (1927) Leaving logical and realistic thoughts

61 Joan Miró (1893-1983) Left, Dutch Interior II, Joan Miro (1928)
Right, Nocturne, Joan Miro (1940) Born in Barcelona, Spain 1893 Grattage technique: put pigment and ink onto his artwork Not “official” member of surrealists: free to experiment with different techniques and styles

62 Joan Miró ( ) André Breton called him “the most surrealist of us all“, and his work is considered among the most original of the 20th century. Painted and sculpted images reflecting the turmoil of both the Spanish Civil War, war in general, and the breakdown of Europe Middle, self portrait of Miro Right, Portrait of A Young Girl, Joan Miro (1935)

63 Max Ernst (1891-1976) Invented the method ‘Frottage’
Similar technique: ‘Decalcomania’ Both allowed the subconscious mind to see into a random pattern and bring out the imagination Created one of the first paintings that combined 3-D elements within a 2-D space Created directly after WWII Upper Left, Two Children Frightened By a Nightingale, Max Ernst (1924) Lower Left, The Temptation of St. Anthony, Max Ernst (1945) Was reflective of the horrors of war Decalcomania: technique where engravings are put on other materials

64 André Breton’s Surrealist Manifesto of 1924
“We are still living under the reign of logic, but the logical processes of our time apply only to the solution of problems of secondary interest. The absolute rationalism which remains in fashion allows for the consideration of only those facts narrowly relevant to our experience…. It revolves in a cage from which release is becoming increasingly difficult… Perhaps the imagination is on the verge of recovering its rights.” Foundation for surrealism Against logic which led to war IMAGINATION Surrealist Manifesto – Excerpt from Breton’s Surrealist Manifesto

65 Surrealist Literature
First “Automatic Book”: Les Champs Magnétiques, by Philippe Soupault and Breton Expressed negative feelings about literal meanings given to certain objects Not very clear or thoughtful writing Famous authors who were believed to be precursors of the Surrealist movement include: Isidore Duccasse, writer of “Le Comte de Lautréamont” Arthur Rimbaud By Automatic book, the authors meant that it was spontaneously written Alice In Wonderland Cartoon, Surrealist Literature by Lewis Carroll Writing: similar to art in breaking away from logic and coherent thoughts

66 The Split from Dada Breton’s Manifesto and the introduction of the La Révolution surréaliste magazine clearly marked the separation. Split from the more Dada focused group who gathered around Tristan Tzara. Bureau of Surrealist Research started in Paris. Le Paysan de Paris, by Louis Aragon in 1926, contained famous works including poems, theoretical text and automatic works, of many Surrealists. Tristan Tzara: Wrote the first Dada texts In Paris he participated in activities with Breton, Aragon and Soupault to shock the public and disintegrate society’s structure

67 Surrealism: A Response
Surrealists believed that the rational mind was responsible for the tragedies of WW1 and the Industrial Revolution. Expressions must not only be ordinary but also have a full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialect. Freud and Marx contributed to Surrealism. Andre Breton stated that the aim of Surrealism is “long live the social revolution, and it alone!” Surrealism has been connected to communism and anarchism. Was used to influence political or social change Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse also played a role in Surrealism and Marxism Society not liberating or free enough: too conventional with strict standards

68 Women In Surrealism Women were portrayed as artificial, especially in photography Artists used unnatural lighting and developing techniques to distort the image Toyed with sexual undertones Right, Lee Miller, Man Ray (1930) Active in surrealist movement Against racism, sexism, or any social distinctions

69 Man Ray (1890-1976) Left, Le Violin D’Ingres, Man Ray (1924)
Upper Middle, Observatory Time, Man Ray (1936) Lower Middle, Noir et Blanche, Man Ray (1926) Right, Anatomies, Man Ray (1929) Invented photo method called solarization

70 Photography & Surrealism: Man Ray (1890 -1976)
Right, Tears, Man Ray (1932) Directed many small films Invented method with photograms for photography

71 The Road Ahead…Art After WWII
Middle, Convergence, Jackson Pollock (1952) The art movements after the 1950s brought together the confusion, disorder and terror of the Anti-War movements of the early 1900s Convergence: to meet and come together Convergence, Jackson Pollock (1952)

72 The End YAYY!

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