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The cost of settling in: Immigration and housing in Vancouver Dan Hiebert, Elvin Wyly, and Pablo Mendez (UBC)

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Presentation on theme: "The cost of settling in: Immigration and housing in Vancouver Dan Hiebert, Elvin Wyly, and Pablo Mendez (UBC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The cost of settling in: Immigration and housing in Vancouver Dan Hiebert, Elvin Wyly, and Pablo Mendez (UBC)

2 Presentation structure 1. Context of immigration and the housing market (Dan Hiebert) 2. The general story of immigration and housing in Vancouver, as seen in the census (Elvin Wyly) 3. The specific story of newcomers, as seen in LSIC (Pablo Mendez)

3 1. The context of immigration and housing in Greater Vancouver Immigration High volume of immigrant reception Large immigrant population Large visible minority population Complex social geography of settlement, which is characterized by both concentration and dispersion Equally complex social geography of immigrants with financial difficulties

4 Canada 18.4% * Now known as Ottawa-Gatineau. Source: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Foreign-born as a % of metropolitan population

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7 1. The context of immigration and housing in Greater Vancouver Vancouvers housing market Most expensive housing stock in Canada High ratio of market housing Emphasis on building for sale rather than rental Low vacancy rate in the rental market

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10 Dwelling Starts by Market Type - Canada Social HousingMarketTotal 19961,750122,963124, ,101145,939147, ,450137, ,090148,870149, ,125150,528151, ,220160,513162,733 Source: CMHC 2002, Table 18; 2001, 1997, Table 21.

11 Vacancy Rates by Geography - Rental Apartments greater than 6 units (centres greater than 10,000) CanadaTorontoMontreal Vancouver Source: CMHC 2005, Table 25; 2001,Table 30.

12 1. The context of immigration and housing in Greater Vancouver Outcomes Immigrants occupy housing at all points on the affordability and desirability spectrum

13 Immigration and housing in Vancouver… at the top and bottom ends of the market

14 From CIC website…

15 Source: Richard Maaranen, Alan Walks, and Larry Bourne, University of Toronto, Center for Urban and Community Studies.

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18 Diversity by time: arrival cohorts Source: Census of Population and Housing, 2001; special tabulations prepared for the Metropolis Centres of Excellence. Indicators of housing integration: homeownership and average household income.

19 Recent newcomers and Vancouvers housing market, as seen in LSIC The Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC) Its target population consists of all immigrants and refugees aged 15 and older who arrived in Canada between October 2000 and September 2001 Includes only newcomers who applied from abroad Based on a sample of 12,040 newcomers; interviews took place six months after landing (first wave) The following results are expressed in terms of numbers or percentages of individuals, not households

20 1. Housing tenure (~six months after landing) N = 23,950 Source: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada

21 1. Housing tenure (~six months after landing)

22 2. Crowding Census definition of crowding A household situation in which there is more than one person per room in the house Number of rooms here excludes bathrooms, entrance halls, and rooms used exclusively for business purposes

23 2. Crowding

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25 3. Proportion of income spent on housing (non-homeowners only) Source: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada

26 3. Proportion of income spent on housing (non-homeowners only) Source: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada

27 3. Proportion of income spent on housing (non-homeowners only) Source: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada

28 4. Housing Stress in relation to income and savings (non-homeowners only) Construction of our housing stress index

29 4. Housing stress in relation to income and savings (non-homeowners only, row %)

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31 Closing thoughts Settling in takes a great deal of energy and costs households a lot; as we have seen, the statement on the CIC website is actually an understatement Different groups make different choices in housing; some avoid crowding, for example, while others accept crowding to enable ownership LSIC shows us that the speed of housing adjustment is very rapid; the story at 6 months is already highly variegated The relative lack of social housing, especially at a time when so many newcomers are arriving, is notable


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