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1.2 Matter and Its Properties. Terms Matter- anything that has mass and volume Matter- anything that has mass and volume Atom- smallest unit of an element.

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Presentation on theme: "1.2 Matter and Its Properties. Terms Matter- anything that has mass and volume Matter- anything that has mass and volume Atom- smallest unit of an element."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.2 Matter and Its Properties

2 Terms Matter- anything that has mass and volume Matter- anything that has mass and volume Atom- smallest unit of an element that keeps the properties of element Atom- smallest unit of an element that keeps the properties of element Element- pure substance made of only one type of atom Element- pure substance made of only one type of atom Compound- substance made of 2 or more types of atoms that are chemically bonded Compound- substance made of 2 or more types of atoms that are chemically bonded Molecule- type of compound in which bonds are covalent bonds Molecule- type of compound in which bonds are covalent bonds

3 Properties of Matter chemists use characteristic properties to tell substances apart and to separate them chemists use characteristic properties to tell substances apart and to separate them some properties define a group of substances some properties define a group of substances

4 Types of Properties Extensive- depend on the amount of matter Extensive- depend on the amount of matter Ex: volume, mass, amount of energy Ex: volume, mass, amount of energy Intensive- do not depend on the amount Intensive- do not depend on the amount Ex: density, boiling point, ability to conduct Ex: density, boiling point, ability to conduct

5 Types of Properties Physical- characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance Physical- characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance Ex. melting point, boiling pt Ex. melting point, boiling pt Chemical- relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substance Chemical- relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substance Easiest to see when a chemical is reacting Easiest to see when a chemical is reacting

6 Physical Changes in Matter change in a substance that doesnt change the identity of the substance change in a substance that doesnt change the identity of the substance Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boiling Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boiling Includes all changes of state (physical changes of a substance from one state to another) Includes all changes of state (physical changes of a substance from one state to another)

7 Solid definite volumedefinite volume definite shapedefinite shape atoms are packed together in fixed positionsatoms are packed together in fixed positions strong attractive forces between atomsstrong attractive forces between atoms only vibrate in placeonly vibrate in place

8 Liquid definite volumedefinite volume indefinite shapeindefinite shape atoms are close togetheratoms are close together atoms can overcome attractive forces to flowatoms can overcome attractive forces to flow

9 Gases indefinite volumeindefinite volume indefinite shapeindefinite shape atoms move very quicklyatoms move very quickly atoms are far apartatoms are far apart pretty weak attractive forcespretty weak attractive forces

10 Changes of State

11 Plasma high temperature state in which atoms lose their electrons high temperature state in which atoms lose their electrons Ex. the sun Ex. the sun

12 Chemical Changes in Matter a change in which a substance is converted into a different substance a change in which a substance is converted into a different substance same as chemical reaction same as chemical reaction doesnt change the amount of matter present doesnt change the amount of matter present reactants- substances that react reactants- substances that react products- substances that form products- substances that form

13 Energy Changes in Matter when any change occurs, energy is always involved when any change occurs, energy is always involved energy can be in different forms (light, heat, etc.) energy can be in different forms (light, heat, etc.) energy is never destroyed or created (law of conservation of energy) energy is never destroyed or created (law of conservation of energy)

14 Energy Changes in Matter Exothermic Reaction- reaction that gives off energy (feels warm on outside) Exothermic Reaction- reaction that gives off energy (feels warm on outside) Endothermic Reaction- reaction that uses up energy (feels cold on outside) Endothermic Reaction- reaction that uses up energy (feels cold on outside)

15 Separation Techniques Filtration- solid part is trapped by filter paper and the liquid part runs through the paper Filtration- solid part is trapped by filter paper and the liquid part runs through the paper Vaporization- where the liquid portion is evaporated off to leave solid Vaporization- where the liquid portion is evaporated off to leave solid

16 Separation Techniques Decanting- when liquid is poured off after solid has settled to bottom Decanting- when liquid is poured off after solid has settled to bottom Centrifuge- machine that spins a sample very quickly so that components with different densities will separate Centrifuge- machine that spins a sample very quickly so that components with different densities will separate

17 Separation Techniques Paper Chromatography- used to separate mixtures because different parts move quicker on paper than other Paper Chromatography- used to separate mixtures because different parts move quicker on paper than other

18 1.3 Elements

19 Elements elements are pure substances elements are pure substances organized by properties on periodic table organized by properties on periodic table each square shows the name and letter symbol for each element each square shows the name and letter symbol for each element usually the symbols relate to the English names but some come from older names (usually Latin) usually the symbols relate to the English names but some come from older names (usually Latin) Ex: golds symbol is Au from aurum Ex: golds symbol is Au from aurum Ex: irons symbol is Fe from ferrum Ex: irons symbol is Fe from ferrum

20 Periodic Table Groups Groups also called families also called families vertical columns vertical columns numbered 1 18 numbered 1 18 have similar chemical properties have similar chemical properties Periods Periods horizontal rows horizontal rows properties changes consistently across a period properties changes consistently across a period

21 Periodic Table

22 two rows below the periodic table are the lanthanide and actinide series two rows below the periodic table are the lanthanide and actinide series these rows fit after #57 and #89 these rows fit after #57 and #89 they are only at the bottom to keep the width of the chart smaller they are only at the bottom to keep the width of the chart smaller

23 Types of Elements Metals Metals an element that is a good conductor of electricity an element that is a good conductor of electricity at room temperature, most are solids at room temperature, most are solids malleable- can be rolled or hammered into sheets malleable- can be rolled or hammered into sheets ductile- can be made into wire ductile- can be made into wire high tensile strength- can resist breakage when pulled high tensile strength- can resist breakage when pulled most have silvery or grayish white luster most have silvery or grayish white luster

24 Types of Elements Nonmetals Nonmetals an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity many are gases at room temperature many are gases at room temperature some are solids: usually brittle, not malleable some are solids: usually brittle, not malleable

25 Types of Elements Metalloids Metalloids an element that has some characteristics of metals and nonmetals an element that has some characteristics of metals and nonmetals appear along staricase line appear along staricase line B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te all are solids at room temperature all are solids at room temperature less malleable that metals but less brittle than nonmetals less malleable that metals but less brittle than nonmetals are semiconductors are semiconductors

26 Types of Elements Noble Gases Noble Gases generally unreactive gases generally unreactive gases in far right column of periodic table in far right column of periodic table


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