Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1.2 Matter and Its Properties

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1.2 Matter and Its Properties"— Presentation transcript:

1 1.2 Matter and Its Properties

2 Terms Matter- anything that has mass and volume
Atom- smallest unit of an element that keeps the properties of element Element- pure substance made of only one type of atom Compound- substance made of 2 or more types of atoms that are chemically bonded Molecule- type of compound in which bonds are covalent bonds

3 Properties of Matter chemists use characteristic properties to tell substances apart and to separate them some properties define a group of substances

4 Types of Properties Extensive- depend on the amount of matter
Ex: volume, mass, amount of energy Intensive- do not depend on the amount Ex: density, boiling point, ability to conduct

5 Types of Properties Physical- characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance Ex. melting point, boiling pt Chemical- relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substance Easiest to see when a chemical is reacting

6 Physical Changes in Matter
change in a substance that doesn’t change the identity of the substance Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boiling Includes all changes of state (physical changes of a substance from one state to another)

7 Solid definite volume definite shape
atoms are packed together in fixed positions strong attractive forces between atoms only vibrate in place

8 Liquid definite volume indefinite shape atoms are close together
atoms can overcome attractive forces to flow

9 Gases indefinite volume indefinite shape atoms move very quickly
atoms are far apart pretty weak attractive forces

10 Changes of State

11 Plasma high temperature state in which atoms lose their electrons
Ex. the sun

12 Chemical Changes in Matter
a change in which a substance is converted into a different substance same as chemical reaction doesn’t change the amount of matter present reactants- substances that react products- substances that form

13 Energy Changes in Matter
when any change occurs, energy is always involved energy can be in different forms (light, heat, etc.) energy is never destroyed or created (law of conservation of energy)

14 Energy Changes in Matter
Exothermic Reaction- reaction that gives off energy (feels warm on outside) Endothermic Reaction- reaction that uses up energy (feels cold on outside)

15 Separation Techniques
Filtration- solid part is trapped by filter paper and the liquid part runs through the paper Vaporization- where the liquid portion is evaporated off to leave solid

16 Separation Techniques
Decanting- when liquid is poured off after solid has settled to bottom Centrifuge- machine that spins a sample very quickly so that components with different densities will separate

17 Separation Techniques
Paper Chromatography- used to separate mixtures because different parts move quicker on paper than other

18 1.3 Elements

19 Elements elements are pure substances
organized by properties on periodic table each square shows the name and letter symbol for each element usually the symbols relate to the English names but some come from older names (usually Latin) Ex: gold’s symbol is Au from aurum Ex: iron’s symbol is Fe from ferrum

20 Periodic Table Groups Periods also called families vertical columns
numbered 118 have similar chemical properties Periods horizontal rows properties changes consistently across a period

21 Periodic Table

22 Periodic Table two rows below the periodic table are the lanthanide and actinide series these rows fit after #57 and #89 they are only at the bottom to keep the width of the chart smaller

23 Types of Elements Metals
an element that is a good conductor of electricity at room temperature, most are solids malleable- can be rolled or hammered into sheets ductile- can be made into wire high tensile strength- can resist breakage when pulled most have silvery or grayish white luster

24 Types of Elements Nonmetals
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity many are gases at room temperature some are solids: usually brittle, not malleable

25 Types of Elements Metalloids
an element that has some characteristics of metals and nonmetals appear along staricase line B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te all are solids at room temperature less malleable that metals but less brittle than nonmetals are semiconductors

26 Types of Elements Noble Gases generally unreactive gases
in far right column of periodic table

Download ppt "1.2 Matter and Its Properties"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google