2Section 1-2 Matter and Its Properties I. Matter-anything that has mass and takes up space.A. Atoms are the smallest kind of matter.B. Elements (pure) made of only one kind of atom.
3Compounds – made of two or more atoms. Properties of elements –1. Extensive properties – depend on amount. Ex. Mass, length, volume, etc2. Intensive properties - do not depend on amount. Ex. Density, malleability, conductivity, ductility, color, melting point, etc.
4Physical properties – this is the physical appearance of a substance 1. Physical change – substance will remain the same.2. Changes in state are physical changes.a. Solid – definite volume and shape low energyb. Liquid – definite volume not shape, more energy than a solidc. Gas – no definite volume or shape, most energy.d. Plasma – high temp., atoms lose electrons
5Chemical properties – the ability of a substance to undergo a change into a new substance. 1. Chemical change – one or more new substances are formed (called a product) ex. Rusting, burning, etc.***The law of conservation of matter must be met.
6Classification of matter – 1. Mixture - contains tow or more materials. There are two basic types of mixturesa. Heterogeneous mixture – unevenly mixedb. Homogenous mixture – evenly mixed. A.K.A. Solution**parts of a solutionSolute – dissolved material (smallest amount)Solvent – dissolving material (larger amount)***Pure substance – can be compounds or elements. Always has the same composition
7Section 3 ElementsGroups or families are vertical rows, have similar characteristicsPeriod are horizontal rows properties change regularly across a period.Metal – conduct heat and electricity, usually a solid.Nonmetals – do not conduct heat or electricity.Metalloid – has characteristics of both metals an nonmetals.Noble gas – group 18 unreactive