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WEST NILE VIRUS: AN INVASIVE PATHOGEN TO THE AMERICAS Christopher J. Brand, USGS National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin.

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Presentation on theme: "WEST NILE VIRUS: AN INVASIVE PATHOGEN TO THE AMERICAS Christopher J. Brand, USGS National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin."— Presentation transcript:

1 WEST NILE VIRUS: AN INVASIVE PATHOGEN TO THE AMERICAS Christopher J. Brand, USGS National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin

2 Worldwide Distribution

3 Transmission Cycle

4 Thousands of crows died from deadly virus and 17 other native bird species affected also West Nile Virus Epizootic in Wild Birds 1999

5 Source of West Nile Virus in North America Infected mosquito?Infected mosquito? Infected bird?Infected bird? Infected human or horse?Infected human or horse? Another vertebrate host?Another vertebrate host? Bio-terrorism?Bio-terrorism? Likely to remain unknownLikely to remain unknown Infected mosquito?Infected mosquito? Infected bird?Infected bird? Infected human or horse?Infected human or horse? Another vertebrate host?Another vertebrate host? Bio-terrorism?Bio-terrorism? Likely to remain unknownLikely to remain unknown

6 Spread of WNV:

7 West Nile Virus in Birds, 2002

8 >162 Susceptible Bird Species Passeriformes (45%)Passeriformes (45%) Falconiformes (12%)Falconiformes (12%) Anseriformes (6%)Anseriformes (6%) Ciconiiformes (5%)Ciconiiformes (5%) Columbiformes (5%)Columbiformes (5%) Passeriformes (45%)Passeriformes (45%) Falconiformes (12%)Falconiformes (12%) Anseriformes (6%)Anseriformes (6%) Ciconiiformes (5%)Ciconiiformes (5%) Columbiformes (5%)Columbiformes (5%)

9 > 37 Mosquito Species Infected AedesAedes –albopictus CulexCulex –salinarius, tarsalis OchlerotatusOchlerotatus –atropalpus, j. japonicus AedesAedes –albopictus CulexCulex –salinarius, tarsalis OchlerotatusOchlerotatus –atropalpus, j. japonicus

10 West Nile Virus in Horses, 2002 >12,038 Cases > 733 Deaths

11 West Nile Virus in Humans, 2002 >4,156 Cases 284 Deaths

12 ? Potential Dissemination of WNV by Migratory Birds

13 Migratory Bird Sampling Great Meadows NWR, MA Wertheim NWR, NY Cape May NWR, NJ Chincoteague NWR, VA Croatan Natl Forest, NC Savannah NWR, SC St. Marks NWR, FL Key West, FL Jamaica Bay WR, NY Merritt Island NWR, FL JN Ding Darling NWR, FL Mark Twain NWR, IL Shelby County, TN Southeast Louisiana NWR, LA Goose Island SP, WI Mercedes, TX Lower Rio Grand Valley NWR, TX Laguna Atascosa NWR, TX

14 Research Results: WNV Transmission by Contact

15 Research Results: WNV Transmission by Ingestion

16 Research Results: WNV Vaccine Efficacy

17 NBII Wildlife Disease Information Node Wildlife Diseases Human Health Disease Surveillance And Mapping Organizations And Links WildPro

18 West Nile Virus: A Threat to Biodiversity???


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