Presentation on theme: "Defending and Advancing Multiculturalism within Education Dr. Richard Race European University, Nicosia, Cyprus 31 st March 2012 E Mail:"— Presentation transcript:
Defending and Advancing Multiculturalism within Education Dr. Richard Race European University, Nicosia, Cyprus 31 st March 2012 E Mail:
Contexts Research which addressed multiculturalism but focused on integration (Eade et al, 2008; Race, 2011). Is Multiculturalism Dead? – Trevor Phillips (2005), post 7/7. English and European Politics – Merkel; Cameron; Clegg (November March 2011) – return to integration; [failure of] state multiculturalism; importance of recognising cultural diversity (Race, 2011a; 2011b). The Multiculturalism Backlash (Vertovec and Wessendorf, 2010) is a European, political movement away from multiculturalism towards integration, visible in Germany and England. English Riots – 1981, Tottenham 1984 and August David Starkey – if all the people of this country … are to enter fully into our national story … they must do so on terms of reciprocity (Daily Telegraph, 20/08/11) Defending Multiculturalism (Mahamdallie, 2011; Rattansi, 2011).
Integration A conditional two way relationship between the state on the one hand and the individual and community on the other. The state will influence and shape the policy-making process and will therefore influence how individuals and communities are shaped and therefore socially and culturally exist. Race, 2011a
Multiculturalism At this stage, let us reassert the Canadian state position of a multiculturalism that promotes equal rights and discourages discrimination, agree with Banks and Banks that multiculturalism cannot be thought as a single concept which is socially on its own, and also agree with Parekh and his claim that multiculturalism is both plural and fluid which recognises that cultural diversity is constantly changing. Race, 2011a: 5
The history of integration and multicultural education policy in England Integration Education of Immigrants (DES: 1965; 1971) Plowden Report (DES: 1967) Citizenship Curriculum (QDA, 1998; QCDA, 2010) Every Child Matters (HO: 2003; DfES, 2004) Ajegbo Report (DfES, 2007) Academy Schools (Gunter, 2011) Multiculturalism Rampton Report (DES: 1981) Swann Report (DES: 1985) Citizenship Curriculum (QCDA, 2010)
Reflections on Multiculturalism and Education (1) Multicultural education … needs to depend on: Method – how practice allows students to talk, think and reflect; Depth – practice needs to avoid the tokenistic. Stereotyping needs to be avoided at all costs; Reach – practice needs to be international rather than national. Race, 2011a: 96
Reflections on Multiculturalism and Education (2) … the importance of awareness training and CPD for [all] practitioners in education. An inclusive, multicultural, anti-racist programme of lifelong learning has to continue to raise social and cultural issues that concern e.g. racism and discrimination. The citizenship curriculum [underlines] the possibilities of a pluralistic, human rights based curriculum which can raise awareness [and understandings] of multiculturalism within education Race, 2011a: 113
Reflections on Multiculturalism and Education (3) [The subject of Citizenship] … many pre-2002 teachers are unsure of citizenship because they have not been taught how to teach the subject … with the non-statutory nature of citizenship education in primary schools, the number of citizenship teachers who would have had the training of CPD would have been minimal. More teachers and specialists in citizenship were required. As the [Ajegbo] report acknowledges, coverage, meaning how the subject was taught and by whom, lacks not only conceptual depth but both teachers and students need to be engaged with relevant subject material. Race, 2011a: 102
The People of Australia. Australias Multicultural Policy Australias successful multicultural society and our democracy are built around shared rights and responsibilities that are fundamental to living in Australia. These key rights and responsibilities are enshrined in our citizenship pledge which requires future citizens to pledge their loyalty to Australia and its people, uphold our laws and democracy and respect our rights and liberties. These rights and liberties include Australians of all backgrounds being entitled to celebrate, practice and maintain their cultural heritage, traditions and language within the law and free from discrimination. DoIC, 2011: 6
Multicultural Present The continuing strength of multicultural education does tend to reside outside of England in the United States but the issue of diverse and citizenship based education systems tend to provide opportunities for culturally diverse education. The Ajegbo Report (DfES, 2007) underlined the need to make the national curriculum … more diverse and, as a consequence, allow issues … on difference, bullying and racism to be researched and debated in classrooms [and lecture theatres]. Race, 2011a: 114
Interculturalism? Interculturalism … requires adequate funding, just as did multiculturalism. And it cannot by itself address issues of racism, ethnic minority inequalities, nor wider class and gender inequalities which are vital to multi-ethnic civility and the preservation of social bonds in increasingly privatized, consumerist societies facing the challenges of de-industralization, separatist regional demands by substate national minorities and drastic cuts to welfare services. Rattansi, 2011: 164
In summary … Multiculturalism – Integration. Education Policy and Practice – what now? CPD – Staff Diversity and Awareness Training. Multiculturalism – very important to rethink and apply today to what is going on socially, culturally and educationally. But, it is one of many concepts that need to be examined to increase our understandings of society, cultures and education (May and Sleeter, 2010; Modood, 2011; Race, 2011a; Race in Barrett et al, 2011b; Handel et al, forthcoming).
Selected Bibliography Australian Government - Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DoIC) (2011) The People of Australia. Australias Multicultural Policy, australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf, last accessed 24 th June australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf Cantle, T. (2008) Community Cohesion. A New Framework for Race and Diversity, Houndsmills, Palgrave Macmillan. Eade, J., Barrett, M., Flood, C., Race, R. (Eds.) (2008) Advancing Multiculturalism, Post 7/7, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Lentin, A., Titley, G. (2011) The Crises of Multiculturalism. Racism in a Neoliberal Age, London, Zed Books. Mahamdallie, H. (Ed.) (2011) Defending Multiculturalism. A Guide for the Movement, London, Bookmarks Publications. May, S., Sleeter, C.E. (Eds.) (2010) Critical Multiculturalism. Theory and Praxis, New York, Routledge. Murphy, M. (2012) Multiculturalism. A Critical Introduction, London, Routledge.
Race, R. (2009) Troyna Revisited: conceptually examining anti-racism and multiculturalism in education, in Pilkington, A., Housee, S., Hylton, K (Eds.) Race(ing) Forward: Transitions in theorising race in education, Birmingham, The Higher Education Academy / Sociology, Anthropology, Politics (C-SAP), Race, R. (2011a) Multiculturalism and Education, London, Continuum. Race, R. (2011b) Integrationist to Citizenship education policy in England, in Barrett, M., Flood, C., Eade, J (Eds.) Nationalism, Ethnicity, Citizenship: multidisciplinary perspectives, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Press, Rattansi, A. (2011) Multiculturalism. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Vertovec, S., Wessendorf, S. (Eds.) (2010) The Multiculturalism Backlash. European discourses, policies and practices, London, Routledge. Wright, H., Singh, M., Race, R. (Eds.) (forthcoming) Precarious International Multicultural Education: hegemony, dissent and rising alternatives, Rotterdam, Sense Publications.