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Integrating Migrants What are the strengths and weaknesses of the British multicultural model? Dr. Sarah Kyambi Research Fellow Migration, Equalities and Citizenship Team
What is the British multiculturalist model? Race relations model Multiculturalism as respect for difference often a feature of public policy However, no legal/constitutional commitment to multiculturalism Legal commitment to non-discrimination and promotion of race equality
History of immigration to the UK Main inflow: post-war immigration 1950s initially mainly Caribbean, then outstripped by South Asian immigrants Successive immigration control legislation 1962, 1971, 1981 Continuing family immigration 1970s and 1980s 1990s characterised by increasing asylum related immigration Increasing restriction of asylum provisions through legislation: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2004 Move to a managed migration system encouraging targeted labour immigration through various skills and sector based schemes Five Year Strategy- to introduce a points system for labour migration, sponsors and bonds, independent skills advisory body and initially temporary refugee protection Five Year strategy:
Race Relations Legislation Early legislation: 1965, 1969 prohibited discrimination in employment, training, education and service provision 1976 Act established Commission for Race Equality with duties to work towards elimination of discrimination, to promote race equality, review 1976 Act operation and exercise strategic powers of enforcement 2000 Race Relations (Amendment) Act: extends duties in race equality legislation to all public authorities. Unlawful for public authorities to discriminate in the exercise of their functions on grounds of race, colour, nationality, ethnic or national origin. Imposes positive duties to promote race equality. Police services come under jurisdiction of race equality legislation Proposed Commission for Equality and Human Rights To integrate different anti-discrimination bodies
British Multiculturalism in Context 2001: 8.3% (4.9million) of population was foreign born Of these 53% white. Then Indian, Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean, Chinese, Bangladeshi. 2001: 7.9% (4.6 million) of population was an ethnic minority. Of these Indian 22%, Then Pakistani, Mixed, Black Caribbean, Black African, Bangladeshi.
Total migration to the UK
Map of people born outside British Isles, 2001
Map of change in people born outside British Isles,
Migration to the UK by citizenship
Immigrants and Employment
Employment gap by UK regions
New Immigrant Communities People earning less than ½ UK median, Source: Labour Force Survey
Public Opinion in Britain Rising concern about immigration and race relations British Attitudes to immigrants consistently more negative than EU average even when more positive than other Europeans about racial and cultural diversity
Public opinion Source: MORI, 2005;
Pressures on the British Model Reasons: 9/11 and 2001 riots in North of England prompted a change in integration policy Public attitudes to immigration and asylum and the prominence of immigration as an election issue Diversity vs. Solidarity debate -is there a liberal dilemma? Recognition vs. Equality debate -is multiculturalism dead?
Pressures on the British Model Consequences: Emergence of policy to promote social cohesion Increased emphasis on fostering belonging and promoting core values Changes to citizenship policy Focus on equality outcomes rather than identity politics Increasing use of integration indicators-useful in trying to be more objective about outcomes and determining what it is we want integration for
Current integration policy in the UK Most recent Government integration strategy Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society has two main foci: a. Reducing race inequalities b. Fostering community cohesion In addition, the Refugee Integration Strategy emphasises achieving full potential, contributing to communities, and accessing services 1.http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs4/race_improving_opport.pdf 2.http://www.ind.homeoffice.gov.uk/ind/en/home/laws___policy/refugee_integration0/a_national_strategy.html
Key Issues British integration policy becoming less about race and more about immigration? As immigration is changing, integration policy needs a more complex model than black/ white or black/white/Asian Will the promoting of equal life chances work? Government recognition that the UK needs immigration yet how to persuade a reluctant public?