Presentation on theme: "Integrating Migrants What are the strengths and weaknesses of the British multicultural model? Dr. Sarah Kyambi Research Fellow Migration, Equalities and."— Presentation transcript:
1 Integrating MigrantsWhat are the strengths and weaknesses of the British multicultural model?Dr. Sarah Kyambi Research Fellow Migration, Equalities and Citizenship Team
2 What is the British multiculturalist model? Race relations modelMulticulturalism as respect for difference often a feature of public policyHowever, no legal/constitutional commitment to multiculturalismLegal commitment to non-discrimination and promotion of race equality
3 History of immigration to the UK Main inflow: post-war immigration 1950’s initially mainly Caribbean, then outstripped by South Asian immigrantsSuccessive immigration control legislation 1962, 1971, 1981Continuing family immigration 1970s and 1980s1990s characterised by increasing asylum related immigrationIncreasing restriction of asylum provisions through legislation: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2004Move to a managed migration system encouraging targeted labour immigration through various skills and sector based schemesFive Year Strategy- to introduce a points system for labour migration, sponsors and bonds, independent skills advisory body and initially temporary refugee protectionFive Year strategy:
4 Race Relations Legislation Early legislation: 1965, 1969 prohibited discrimination in employment, training, education and service provision1976 Act established Commission for Race Equality with duties to work towards elimination of discrimination, to promote race equality, review 1976 Act operation and exercise strategic powers of enforcement2000 Race Relations (Amendment) Act: extends duties in race equality legislation to all public authorities. Unlawful for public authorities to discriminate in the exercise of their functions on grounds of race, colour, nationality, ethnic or national origin. Imposes positive duties to promote race equality. Police services come under jurisdiction of race equality legislationProposed Commission for Equality and Human Rights To integrate different anti-discrimination bodies
5 British Multiculturalism in Context 2001: 8.3% (4.9million) of population was foreign bornOf these 53% white. Then Indian, Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean, Chinese, Bangladeshi.2001: 7.9% (4.6 million) of population was an ethnic minority.Of these Indian 22%, Then Pakistani, Mixed, Black Caribbean, Black African, Bangladeshi.
12 New Immigrant Communities People earning less than ½ UK median, 00-04. 0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%North EastNorth WestYorkshire &HumbersideWestMidlandsEastEast ofEnglandInner LondonOuter LondonSouth EastSouth WestWalesScotlandN.IrelandBritish Isles born'Settled' foreign born'New' foreign bornSource: Labour Force Survey
13 Public Opinion in Britain Rising concern about immigration and race relationsBritish Attitudes to immigrants consistently more negative than EU average even when more positive than other Europeans about racial and cultural diversity
15 Pressures on the British Model Reasons:9/11 and 2001 riots in North of England prompted a change in integration policyPublic attitudes to immigration and asylum and the prominence of immigration as an election issueDiversity vs. Solidarity debate is there a liberal dilemma?Recognition vs. Equality debate is multiculturalism dead?
16 Pressures on the British Model Consequences:Emergence of policy to promote social cohesionIncreased emphasis on fostering belonging and promoting core valuesChanges to citizenship policyFocus on equality outcomes rather than identity politicsIncreasing use of integration indicators-useful in trying to be more objective about outcomes and determining what it is we want integration for
17 Current integration policy in the UK Most recent Government integration strategy ‘Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society’ has two main foci:a. Reducing race inequalitiesb. Fostering community cohesionIn addition, the Refugee Integration Strategy emphasises achieving full potential, contributing to communities, and accessing services
18 Key IssuesBritish integration policy becoming less about race and more about immigration?As immigration is changing, integration policy needs a more complex model than black/ white or black/white/AsianWill the promoting of equal life chances work?Government recognition that the UK needs immigration yet how to persuade a reluctant public?