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What about communication between neurons?.  presynaptic ending – ◦ portion of the axon conveying information to the next neuron.

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Presentation on theme: "What about communication between neurons?.  presynaptic ending – ◦ portion of the axon conveying information to the next neuron."— Presentation transcript:

1 What about communication between neurons?

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3  presynaptic ending – ◦ portion of the axon conveying information to the next neuron

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5  presynaptic ending – ◦ the portion of the axon that is conveying information to the next neuron  synapse or synaptic cleft ◦ the space between neurons where communication occurs

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7  presynaptic ending – ◦ the portion of the axon that is conveying information to the next neuron  synapse or synaptic cleft ◦ the space between neurons where communication occurs  postsynaptic membrane ◦ the portion of the neuron (usually dendrite) that receives information

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9  presynaptic ending – ◦ the portion of the axon that is conveying information to the next neuron  synapse or synaptic cleft ◦ the space between neurons where communication occurs  postsynaptic membrane ◦ the portion of the neuron (usually dendrite) that receives information  pre and postsynaptic receptors ◦ proteins in both the presynaptic and postsynaptic ending that allow for information to be transferred

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11  synaptic vesicles --small enclosed membranes that contain neurotransmitter - found in presynaptic ending  neurotransmitter – substance in vesicles that are released in synapse and convey info to the next neuron

12 synapse

13  AP reaches presynaptic ending-  Ca+2 channels in presynaptic ending open and Ca+2 enters

14 Ca +2 entry into the presynaptic ending critical for neurotransmitter release Why are Ca +2 ions important?

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16 drugs that block Ca +2 channels…….

17  protein embedded in membrane  mechanism for neurotransmitter to influence postsynaptic activity by binding to receptor

18  NT binds to postsynaptic receptors and causes small local changes in electrical potential (depolarizations or hyperpolarizations)- ◦ Called graded potentials

19  increase or decrease the likelihood of the neuron receiving info to generate an action potential ◦ graded potentials that increase the likelihood of an action potential are called EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials)

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21  increase or decrease the likelihood of the neuron receiving info to generate an action potential ◦ graded potentials that increase the likelihood of an action potential are called EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) ◦ graded potentials that decrease the likelihood of an action potential are called IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)

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23  NT binding to postsynaptic receptors cause local ion channels to open  chemically dependent ion channels ◦ (in contrast with electrically dependent ion channels in the axon)

24  postsynaptic receptors open ion channels – ◦ ion channels in postsynaptic membrane (that we need to worry about) include Na+, Cl- and K+

25  EPSPs – excitatory postsynaptic potentials  - increase the likelihood of an AP  - opening of  IPSPs – inhibitory postsynaptic potentials  decrease the likelihood of an AP  - opening of

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27 Axon hillock

28 ◦ graded potentials are summed at axon hillock and……if the sum is a great enough depolarization….

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30 action potential or spike

31  Graded Potentials and AP differ in a number of ways ◦ AP – occurs at the axon ◦ GP – occurs anywhere the neuron receives info from another neuron (usually dendrite although NOT ALWAYS) ◦ action potentials are “all or none” graded potentials decrease over space and time ◦ Graded potentials are localized – has impact in limited region; AP travels down the axon

32  Graded potentials can either increase or decrease the likelihood of an action potential

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34  Postsynaptic receptor and NT – think about a lock and key!

35 Neurotransmitter represents a key Receptor represents the lock

36 1. directly opening the ion channel ◦ occurs and terminates very quickly

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39 1. directly opening the ion channel ◦ occurs and terminates very quickly 2. more indirect ◦ ultimately opens ion channel via stimulating a chemical reaction  takes longer but lasts longer

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42 1. reuptake - most common ◦ protein on presynaptic ending transports it back into the neuron that released it ◦ Means of recycling NT  saving energy (neurons have to synthesize or produce their own NT) ◦ a common way for drugs to alter normal communication

43 cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin) – block reuptake of a number of NT – particularly dopamine (reward) many of the newer antidepressants are SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

44 2. enzyme degradation ◦ enzyme - speeds up a reaction ◦ ex. acetylcholine (ACh)is a neurotransmitter is broken down by acetylcholinesterase (AChE)  For ACh – this is done in the synapse

45  probably 100s of “putative” neurotransmitters – more being discovered all the time  role that the novel NTs play still being determined

46 1. acetylcholine (ACh) –

47 acetylcholine (ACh) – found in CNS and PNS receptor subtypes – nicotinic and muscarinic

48 acetylcholine (ACh) – found in CNS and PNS receptor subtypes – nicotinic and muscarinic nicotinic receptors – muscles acetylcholine also important for various behaviors including learning and memory alzheimers disease, REM sleep, among other things…

49 2. Monoamines 1.dopamine (DA) important for reward circuits schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease

50 2. Monoamines 1.dopamine (DA) 2.norepinephrine (NE) important for arousal altered activity implicated in depression

51 2. Monoamines 1.dopamine (DA) 2.norepinephrine (NE) 3.serotonin (5HT) aggression, anxiety, depression

52 3. Peptides- really large neurotransmitters

53 3. Peptides 1.substance P important for pain 2. endorphins and enkephalins (endogenous opiates) pain relievers!

54 4. amino acids (tiny neurotransmitters) 1.glutamate ALWAYS EXCITATORY (IE always causes EPSPs) 2. GABA – always inhibitory ( always causes IPSPs) -

55  almost any aspect of the NT function can be affected by drugs!

56  synthesis of NT  storage of NT  release of NT  binding of NT  breakdown of NT

57  agonist – mimics the neurotransmitter’s effect  antagonist – blocks the neurotransmitter’s effect

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59  acting like a receptor agonist ◦ nicotine  ionotropic  potent poison  acting like a receptor antagonist ◦ curare

60  alter breakdown of ACh  blocks breakdown ◦ mustard gases, insecticides, ◦ nerve gases  Sarin - estimated to be over 500 times more toxic than cyanide ◦ Gulf War Syndrome? ◦ other current syndromes??

61  alter breakdown of ACh ◦ blocks breakdown  mustard gases, insecticides, physostigmine  Gulf War Syndrome?  alter release of ACh ◦ block release – botulism

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63  alter release of ACh ◦ block release – botulism ◦ botox ◦ stimulate release – black widow spider venom


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