Presentation on theme: "Forensic Victimology 2nd Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1Forensic Victimology 2nd Edition Chapter One: Victimology - A Brief History with an Introduction to Forensic Victimology
2History of Victimology In modern criminal justice system, the word victim has come to describe any person who has experienced injury, loss, or hardship due to the illegal action of another individual, group, or organization.The term victimology first appeared in 1949 and was used to describe the study of individuals harmed by criminals.In modern usage, the term victimology generally refers to the scientific study of victims and victimization, including the relationships between victim and offender, investigators, courts, corrections, media, and social movements.
3History of Victimology Jan Van Dijk (1999) proposed that there are two types of victimology:General victimologyStudies victimity in the broadest sense, including those that have been harmed by accidents, natural disasters, war, etc.Focuses on the treatment, prevention, and alleviation of the consequences of being victimized, regardless of the cause
4History of Victimology Interactionist (or penal) victimologyCombines issues concerning the causation of crimes with those relating to the victim’s role in the criminal proceedings, where victims are only those who become such as a result of crimeFocuses on advocacy for victims
5History of Victimology Jerin and Moriarty (1998) contend that there are three distinct historical eras defining the victims’ role within systems of justice:The Golden AgeExisted prior to written laws and established governments, tribal law prevailedVictims played a direct role in determining punishments for the unlawful actions that others committed against them or their propertyRetribution was the resolution for criminal matters
6History of Victimology The Dark AgeResulted from the emergence of structured local governments and the development of legal statutesOffenses were viewed as perpetrated against the laws of the king or state, not just against the victim or the victim’s familyFocus shifted towards offender punishments and rights, as opposed to victim rights and restoration
7History of Victimology The Reemergence of the victimRealization that victims were being overlooked as a source of information about crime and criminalStudying victims led to the birth of traditional victimology as a discrete scientific endeavor
8Key FiguresThe origins of scientific victimology can be attributed to the following key figures in criminology:Hans Von Hentig ( )Sought to develop crime prevention strategiesDetermined that certain victim characteristics played a role in shaping the crimes sufferedBelieved that some victims contributed to their own victimization by virtue or many converging factors, not all of which were in their controlClassified victims into one of 13 categories
9Key Figures The Young Females The Old The Mentally Defective and DerangedImmigrantsMinoritiesDull NormalsThe DepressedThe AcquisitiveThe WantonThe Lonesome of HeartbrokenThe TormentorThe Blocked, Exempted, or Fighting
10Key Figures Benjamin Mendelsohn Became interested in the correlations between rapists and their victimsDeveloped the term victim precipitationDeveloped a typology that categorizes the extent to which a victim is capable of his or her own demise (focusing on situational factors)Completely innocent victimsVictim due to ignoranceVoluntary victimVictim more guilty than the offenderMost guilty victimSimulating or imaginary victim
11Key Figures Stephen Schafer Published the first textbook on the subject of victimologyInterviewed criminals and aimed to build upon the previous typologies, focusing on victim culpabilityProposed seven types of victim responsibilityUnrelated victimsProvocative victimsPrecipitative victimsBiologically weak victimsSocially week victimsSelf-victimizingPolitical victims
12Key Figures Marvin E. Wolfgang First presented empirical research findings as support for his theories of victimologyPresented his study of police homicide records, which concluded that over a quarter of the homicides in the city of Philadelphia between involved an element of victim contribution and participation
13Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Forensic victimology is the objective study of victims, with a focus on impartially and completely describing all aspects of their life and lifestyle in order to gain a better understanding of how they came to be victimized, how the crime took place, and their relationship with the offender.
14Forensic Victimology: An Introduction PurposeThe purpose of forensic victimology is aimed at accurately, critically, and objectively describing the victim in order to better understand victims, crime, criminals, and forensic issues.Forensic victimologists serve investigations and court proceedings by endeavoring to:Assist in understanding elements of crimeAssist in developing a timelineDefine the suspect poolProvide investigative suggestionsAssist with crime reconstruction
15Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Continued:Assist with contextualizing allegations of victimizationsAssist with the development of offender modus operandiAssist with the development of offender motiveAssist with case linkageAssist with public safety responseEducate the court
16Forensic Victimology: An Introduction PhilosophyThe philosophy behind studying victims in investigative and forensic contexts is that a complete understanding of victims and their circumstances will allow for a comprehensive and correct interpretation of the nature of their harm and loss.It also provides insight into the plans and motives of those who committed the offense against them.
17Forensic Victimology: An Introduction AimThe aim of forensic victimology is to assist in providing informed investigations, to require scientific examinations of victim evidence that is intended for court, and to result in more informed legal outcomes.