Presentation on theme: "Forensic Victimology 2nd Edition Chapter One: Victimology - A Brief History with an Introduction to Forensic Victimology."— Presentation transcript:
Forensic Victimology 2nd Edition Chapter One: Victimology - A Brief History with an Introduction to Forensic Victimology
History of Victimology In modern criminal justice system, the word victim has come to describe any person who has experienced injury, loss, or hardship due to the illegal action of another individual, group, or organization. The term victimology first appeared in 1949 and was used to describe the study of individuals harmed by criminals. In modern usage, the term victimology generally refers to the scientific study of victims and victimization, including the relationships between victim and offender, investigators, courts, corrections, media, and social movements.
History of Victimology Jan Van Dijk (1999) proposed that there are two types of victimology: 1.General victimology –Studies victimity in the broadest sense, including those that have been harmed by accidents, natural disasters, war, etc. –Focuses on the treatment, prevention, and alleviation of the consequences of being victimized, regardless of the cause
History of Victimology 2.Interactionist (or penal) victimology –Combines issues concerning the causation of crimes with those relating to the victims role in the criminal proceedings, where victims are only those who become such as a result of crime –Focuses on advocacy for victims
History of Victimology Jerin and Moriarty (1998) contend that there are three distinct historical eras defining the victims role within systems of justice: 1.The Golden Age –Existed prior to written laws and established governments, tribal law prevailed –Victims played a direct role in determining punishments for the unlawful actions that others committed against them or their property –Retribution was the resolution for criminal matters
History of Victimology 2.The Dark Age –Resulted from the emergence of structured local governments and the development of legal statutes –Offenses were viewed as perpetrated against the laws of the king or state, not just against the victim or the victims family –Focus shifted towards offender punishments and rights, as opposed to victim rights and restoration
History of Victimology 3.The Reemergence of the victim –Realization that victims were being overlooked as a source of information about crime and criminal –Studying victims led to the birth of traditional victimology as a discrete scientific endeavor
Key Figures The origins of scientific victimology can be attributed to the following key figures in criminology: Hans Von Hentig ( ) Sought to develop crime prevention strategies Determined that certain victim characteristics played a role in shaping the crimes suffered Believed that some victims contributed to their own victimization by virtue or many converging factors, not all of which were in their control Classified victims into one of 13 categories
Key Figures 1.The Young 2.Females 3.The Old 4.The Mentally Defective and Deranged 5.Immigrants 6.Minorities 7.Dull Normals 8.The Depressed 9.The Acquisitive 10.The Wanton 11.The Lonesome of Heartbroken 12.The Tormentor 13.The Blocked, Exempted, or Fighting
Key Figures Benjamin Mendelsohn Became interested in the correlations between rapists and their victims Developed the term victim precipitation Developed a typology that categorizes the extent to which a victim is capable of his or her own demise (focusing on situational factors) 1.Completely innocent victims 2.Victim due to ignorance 3.Voluntary victim 4.Victim more guilty than the offender 5.Most guilty victim 6.Simulating or imaginary victim
Key Figures Stephen Schafer Published the first textbook on the subject of victimology Interviewed criminals and aimed to build upon the previous typologies, focusing on victim culpability Proposed seven types of victim responsibility 1.Unrelated victims 2.Provocative victims 3.Precipitative victims 4.Biologically weak victims 5.Socially week victims 6.Self-victimizing 7.Political victims
Key Figures Marvin E. Wolfgang First presented empirical research findings as support for his theories of victimology Presented his study of police homicide records, which concluded that over a quarter of the homicides in the city of Philadelphia between involved an element of victim contribution and participation
Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Forensic victimology is the objective study of victims, with a focus on impartially and completely describing all aspects of their life and lifestyle in order to gain a better understanding of how they came to be victimized, how the crime took place, and their relationship with the offender.
Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Purpose The purpose of forensic victimology is aimed at accurately, critically, and objectively describing the victim in order to better understand victims, crime, criminals, and forensic issues. Forensic victimologists serve investigations and court proceedings by endeavoring to: –Assist in understanding elements of crime –Assist in developing a timeline –Define the suspect pool –Provide investigative suggestions –Assist with crime reconstruction
Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Continued: –Assist with contextualizing allegations of victimizations –Assist with the development of offender modus operandi –Assist with the development of offender motive –Assist with case linkage –Assist with public safety response –Educate the court
Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Philosophy The philosophy behind studying victims in investigative and forensic contexts is that a complete understanding of victims and their circumstances will allow for a comprehensive and correct interpretation of the nature of their harm and loss. It also provides insight into the plans and motives of those who committed the offense against them.
Forensic Victimology: An Introduction Aim The aim of forensic victimology is to assist in providing informed investigations, to require scientific examinations of victim evidence that is intended for court, and to result in more informed legal outcomes.