Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 7 Issues in Policing.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 7 Issues in Policing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 7 Issues in Policing

2 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 2 Challenges to traditional policing Community policing Problem-oriented policing Zero-tolerance policing Broken windows theory and police problems

3 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 3 Challenges to traditional policing Community policing Recalls the watchman style Attempts to harness community resources and residents in stopping crime and maintaining order Covers a vast array of activities

4 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 4 Challenges to traditional policing Problem-oriented policing Related to community policing Expands the officer's role from reaction to proactive problem solving. Allows agencies to address crime on a more systemic level than traditional policing

5 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 5 Challenges to traditional policing Zero-tolerance policing A refinement of problem-oriented policing Based on the broken windows theory If every infraction of the law is punished, offenders will not commit more serious offenses.

6 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 6 Challenges to traditional policing Broken windows & police problems According to the broken windows theory, vandalism and criminal activity are more likely to occur in areas that appear abandoned or neglected.

7 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 7 Challenges to traditional policing Broken windows & police problems   Misreading of how communities were policed in the past   Concern for the rights of all citizens   Problem of crime displacement Reasons to be cautious about broken windows theory …

8 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 8 Gender and race Women & minorities as police officers The number of female officers continues to increase. Black officers can be found on nearly every US police force. Black officers may experience double marginality.

9 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 9 Police use of force  Physical force is considered legitimate only under the following circumstances …

10 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 10 Police use of force Self-defense Specifically deputized persons against some specifically named persons Police force

11 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 11 Police use of force SWAT teams The militarization of the police and the war-on-crime analogy are the most apparent in the Special Weapons and Tactics divisions of law enforcement agencies.

12 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 12 Police use of force Proactive policing and force Sometimes the police structure situations to give crime an opportunity to occur.

13 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 13 Police stress and burnout Police and alcohol Family problems and the police Police and suicide Dealing with the stress of policing

14 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 14 Police stress and burnout

15 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 15 Police stress and burnout

16 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 16 CrossCurrents Stress and Burnout Suicide by cop Refers to suspects attempting to be killed by police officers. The police officer is a victim of a purposeful act by the suspect. “Police-assisted suicide”?

17 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 17 Police stress and burnout Police and alcohol Stress and the police subculture may exert a powerful influence on drinking patterns.

18 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 18 Police stress and burnout Police and alcohol   The subculture may socialize new officers into accepting a pattern of after-shift drinking.   Socialization in the police subculture establishes that drinking is not deviant.   Normalization of drinking may preclude treatment because "every one of my friends drinks."

19 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 19 Police stress and burnout Police and alcohol Many public safety organizations have instituted drug and alcohol testing to ensure that police officers are capable of performing their jobs.

20 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 20 Police stress and burnout Family problems & the police The individual police officer is not the only one affected by stress. Family members often experience stress, as well.

21 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 21 Police stress and burnout Family problems & the police   Officers may appear withdrawn and disinterested in the family.   Family members may fear for an officer's safety.   Rotating shifts may cause hardships.

22 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 22 Police stress and burnout Police and suicide Many studies have shown that law enforcement has one of the highest suicide rates of any occupation.

23 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 23 CrossCurrents Stress and Burnout Another look at police suicide Some studies show high rates of police suicide. Robert Loo: There are problems with the way police suicide rates are calculated. Compare officers to their demographic characteristics.

24 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 24 Police stress and burnout Dealing with the stress of policing   Stress management and stress reduction techniques   Group process sessions   Police mentoring Arrigo and Garsky make three suggestions to reduce police stress…

25 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 25 Police subculture and police corruption Policeman's working personality explains how police officers are drawn into a subculture that emphasizes a different set of values from those of mainstream society.

26 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 26 Police subculture and police corruption Policeman's working personality Key elements Symbolic assailant Danger Social isolation Solidarity

27 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 27 Policeman's working personality Symbolic assailant Police officers are systematically trained and culturally reinforced to consider everyone a potential assailant until they determine that an individual poses no threat.

28 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 28 Policeman's working personality Danger Although death in the line of duty and serious physical injury are not frequent, the possibility of confrontation is always there.

29 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 29 Policeman's working personality Social Isolation Police officers may perceive an individual as a symbolic assailant, but the public sees the police officer as a symbolic authority figure. Skolnick: social isolation causes many officers to limit their social interactions.

30 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 30 Policeman's working personality Solidarity The combination of danger and social isolation creates a sense of solidarity in the police subculture. “Us against them” mentality is possible.

31 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 31 Questions What is community policing? What is problem-oriented policing? What is broken-windows theory?


Download ppt "Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 7 Issues in Policing."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google