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Ethical Justice Chapter Two: Ethical Issues for Students of Criminal Justice.

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1 Ethical Justice Chapter Two: Ethical Issues for Students of Criminal Justice

2 Ethical Issues for Students Students of Criminal Justice, Justice Studies, and Justice Administration will be confronted with ethical issues and dilemmas. These students must research and understand the ethical requirements of the criminal justice system, as well as the specific codes of conduct where they attend classes.

3 Employment Screening Employment disqualifiers are past and present activities or affiliations that evidence, or even appear to evidence, criminality, a propensity for dishonesty, or poor character. Examples include: illegal drug use, abuse of prescription medications, alcohol abuse, gambling addictions, criminal arrests and convictions, commission of undetected crimes, extensive history of traffic violations, gang affiliations, affiliations with known criminals, mental disorders, and pervasive financial problems.

4 Employment Screening Employers may also require background investigations aimed at ethical concerns. Examples include: resume and application verification, criminal history, moral fitness, financial history, known associates, and polygraph examination.

5 Student Codes of Honor, Ethics and Conduct Every educational institution has its own code of conduct for registered students. These mandates spell out the values, virtues, and behaviors that are expected of all registrants and their guests. Student codes of conduct are not specifically intended to manage unlawful conduct. First, student codes are first intended to help cultivate and manage student character as a whole. Second, they give the institution domain and recourse when a victimized student does not pursue criminal charges or a civil remedy.

6 Student Misconduct Student misconduct can be defined as any violation of institutional rules, regulations, or codes of conduct by a student. Behaviors that are explicitly prohibited include those involving dishonesty; academic misconduct; hazing; indecency; inappropriate sexual behavior; improper relationships between staff and students; illegal possession or use of drugs and alcohol; stalking; threats and harassment; interfering with staff or students; violence; and any conduct that might constitute a criminal offense. Depending on the severity, student misconduct may result in the issuance of a warning, a probationary period, a suspension, or in extreme cases, expulsion.

7 Academic Misconduct Academic misconduct is a specific type of student misconduct, referring to any action that is intended to create an unfair academic advantage for oneself, or that unfairly impacts the advantages of other members in the academic community. Examples include the following: Cheating: refers to any dishonest behavior that is intended to secure an unfair advantage – especially during an examination or an assessment of some kind.

8 Academic Misconduct Plagiarism: involves the use of intellectual property (e.g., words, constructs, inventions, or ideas) without proper acknowledgement, giving others the false impression that it is original work. Plagiarism includes: plagiarism of authorship, direct plagiarism, paraphrasing, and self-plagiarism. Data and information fabrication: refers to making up data or results and recording or reporting them. Theft or damage of intellectual property: involved intentionally stealing or destroying the work of another. Faking illness, family emergencies, or victimization.

9 Inappropriate Relationships Inappropriate relationships are defined as any relationships that cause or promote ethical dilemmas. With respect to students, this includes any relationship with an instructor that exists outside of the established boundaries of traditional student-faculty roles.

10 Inappropriate Relationships Personal relationships between students and staff are problematic and generally inappropriate for the following reasons: Younger students are easy prey for staff members with a penchant for sating those taking their courses; Staff members that are emotionally involved with their students are in a continuous ethical bind with respect to perceived expectations, grading, and opportunities that are unavailable to those without the same intimate access; Relationships can create the appearance of favoritism; and There can be severe fall out from student-faculty relationships when they end.

11 Drugs & Alcohol Apart from being a violation of student code and possibly the law, alcohol and drug abuse accomplish three things with certainty: This kind of behavior makes it easy to get into inappropriate, illegal, and dangerous situations; This kind of behavior makes it difficult to recognize, and get out of, inappropriate, illegal, and dangerous situations; and Those abusing alcohol and drugs can be certain that professionals, and prospective employers, will view them as liabilities.

12 Hazing Hazing is a reference to a particular kind of initiation ritual that involves physical pain or mental distress coupled with humiliating, intimidating, and demeaning treatment. In a nationwide college survey of hazing and hazing related issues, hazing commonly involved the following: Sleep deprivation, servitude, cross-dressing, being tied up or confined to small places, drinking large amounts of alcohol, and performing sex acts in groups, with persons of the same gender, or on other members of the group. Significantly, participants engage in hazing activities willingly, believing that their suffering will earn them respect and loyalty of the group.

13 Stalking Stalking involves repeated and persistent unwanted communication or contact that creates far in the target. A list of common stalking behaviors include: Unwanted phone calls, voice or text messages, hang- ups Unwanted emails, instant messages, messages through social media Unwanted cards, letters, flowers, or presents Watching or following from a distance, spying with a listening device, camera, or GPS

14 Stalking Continued: Approaching or showing up in places such as the victims home, workplace, or school when it is unwanted Leaving strange or potentially threatening items for the victim to find Sneaking into victims homes or car and doing things to scare the victim or let them victim know the perpetrator had been there

15 Sexual Misconduct Sexual misconduct can be defined as any sexually oriented behavior that violates established codes of conduct. However, every educational institution defines it differently. A major factor in the consideration of whether or not there has been sexual misconduct is the issue of consent. Consent refers to the act of giving permission with an awareness of the consequences.

16 Sexual Misconduct Many educational institutions have policies that prohibit any form of sexual coercion. Sexual coercion refers to the psychological, emotional, chemical, or physical manipulation or one person by another for sexual purposes. As a result of sexual coercion, student victims may perceive very real physical, emotional, economic, academic, or social consequences should they fail to acquiesce.

17 Graduate Students Graduate students have different opportunities available to them. These opportunities include: Teaching; Conducting research; Publishing; and Participating in grant projects. These opportunities come with additional ethical issues that must be considered by graduate students.

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