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**Formal Models of Computation Part II The Logic Model**

Lecture 3 – Prolog syntax and operation

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**formal models of computation**

Prolog An implementation of logic programming. There are others, but Prolog is by far the most successful. It is a programming language with its own style and pragmatics. We will explore Prolog from a programming perspective (and not primarily logic-theoretic); formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Prolog: Syntax A Prolog program is a sequence of facts and rules The logical symbols must get an ASCII representation: The “neck” of a clause is “:-” Conjunction indicated by “,” and disjunction indicated by “;” All clauses (fact, rules and queries) must end with “.” (to inform the interpreter it is indeed the end) Variables, predicate names, constants, etc. also have their representation, as we’ll see… Prolog programs can be compiled or interpreted, but Prolog systems support the following basic functionality: Edit your program in a file and load it in Prolog Run the program by entering a query formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Variables Variables in Prolog are represented by Any string starting with a capital letter (A-Z) Any string starting with “_” (underscore) Examples: X, X1, X_1, ThisIsAVariable, _23 Also, the anonymous variable “_” (underscore) Once a variable gets a value, there is no way to change it! (no destructive assignments!) Variables can be aliased (just like in Java) thus sharing their values with other variables. We say a variable is instantiated when it has a value, otherwise it is uninstantiated. formal models of computation

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**Variables in Haskell vs Prolog**

As in Haskell, every time a definition (Haskell)/ clause (Prolog) is used the variables in the definition can have a new value As in Haskell, for a particular use of a definition/ clause a variable always denotes the same value As in Haskell, there is no way to destructively assign a value to a variable Unlike Haskell, a variable can be used when it has not yet been assigned a value, and two such variables can be aliased In Prolog, variables obtain their values primarily through the effects of unification formal models of computation

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**Constants Constants (or atoms) are**

Any string starting with a non-capital letter (a-z) Any string within ’…’ (single quotes) Numbers (integers, reals, scientific notation) Examples: anAtom ’AnotherConstant’ true false thisIsAVeryLongAtom formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Terms Terms are means to structure information. Terms are FunctorName(SubTerm1,…,SubTermn) FunctorName must be a constant (not numbers!) SubTermi is a constant, or a variable, or another (nested) term Examples: has(john,jaguar) date(15,Month,2003) s(s(s(s(s(0))))) p(q(X,123),a45) formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Terms (Cont’d) Term: functor and arguments FunctorName(SubTerm1,…,SubTermn) Terms are stored internally as trees. Examples: functor arguments has john jaguar date 15 Month 2003 formal models of computation

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**Matching Terms (Unification)**

Terms can be matched, that is, compared. Two terms match if They are identical, or If their variables can be assigned values so that the terms become identical. Two terms are matched by traversing their trees comparing their nodes and assigning values to variables (if needed). Terms are matched when a goal is matched against the head of a clause. Terms can also be matched via the built-in “=” operator – it compares and, if possible, assigns values to variables. [NB remember that a variable can only be assigned a value if it doesn’t yet have one (is uninstantiated)] formal models of computation

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**Matching Terms (Cont’d)**

Example: date(2,april,Year) matches date(Day,Month,2003) Day is instantiated to 2 Month is instantiated to april Year is instantiated to 2003 The terms below don’t match – why? p(1,s(X,a),foo) p(A,s(1,A),B) date date Year 2 april 2003 Day Month formal models of computation

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**Matching in Haskell vs Prolog**

We have seen pattern matching in Haskell – used: to test whether a case of a definition is appropriate to transfer values from actual parameters to formal parameters (local variables) In Haskell, it is one-way matching – information flows from the call to the function body, not the reverse: tail (_:xs) = xs Main> tail 4:3:2:1:[] In Prolog, it is two-way matching – information can pass out to the caller: p(X,f(X)). :- p(a,Y), q(Y)… formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Facts Facts are terms which must end with “.” Examples: has(john,car(jaguar)). has(john,book(’AnimalFarm’)). date(23,april,2003). Facts establish what is true about something. Facts represent what is important to the problem we want to solve. As programmers, we create facts and their meaning: loves(ann,bob). (who loves whom?) formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Rules Rules are of the form Term :- Term, Term, …, Term. N.B.: rules must end with “.” !! We refer to the head and body of a rule: A fact is a rule with an empty body (so, no “:-”) The terms of a rule are also called (sub-)goals. Examples: rich(X):- has(X,jaguar). goodPC(Cf):- ram(Cf,256), processor(Cf,pIII). head body formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Prolog Programs Programs are sequences of facts and rules. There is no restriction on the layout of programs. To improve visualisation, write facts in separate lines. Rules can be split into different lines if too big: Humans (you!) will read your program – make their life easier and COMMENT YOUR CODE!! grandfather(X,Y):- father(X,Z), father(Z,Y). grandfather(X,Z): % X is a grandfather of Y if father(X,Y), % - X is the father of Z and father(Y,Z) % - Z is the father of Y formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Prolog Programs Sometimes we have different rules with the same head goal – these are the distinct cases. Rules with the same head goal should be written together. The rules that have the same head goal are said to define a predicate; As programmers, we can equate a predicate with a procedure. formal models of computation

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**Type Checking in Haskell and Prolog**

In Haskell, every function has a single type (either inferred, or explicitly given by the programmer) The type information can be used to detect silly errors in programs Prolog has no typing – any predicate or functor can apply to any kinds of Prolog terms formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Queries Queries are of the form :- Term, Term, …, Term. N.B.: queries must end with “.” !! The terms of a query are also called (sub-)goals. A query is a clause without a head term. Prolog offers a prompt for us to enter queries, so we don’t need to type “:-” (it is assumed). However, the period at the end is essential! Example: ?- rich(X). prompt formal models of computation

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**formal models of computation**

Queries (Cont’d) A Prolog program is run/executed when we pose queries. An execution is a proof of a query: If the query is true Prolog will say “yes”; If not Prolog will say “no”. We use `execution` & `proof` as synonyms in the context of Prolog programs. formal models of computation

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**Haskell vs Prolog: Interaction loop**

Haskell systems operate a “read - evaluate - print” loop: Main> fac 3 6 Prolog systems operate a “read - satisfy –print” loop: ?- fac(3,X). X = 6? There may be more than one answer to a Prolog query. Responding to the “?” with “;” asks for alternative solutions; responding <return> returns to the main loop. In this context, “no” from Prolog means “no more solutions”. formal models of computation

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