Presentation on theme: "Chapter8 phrases and sentences:grammar Ensiyeh Parvin nia Roya namdari."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter8 phrases and sentences:grammar Ensiyeh Parvin nia Roya namdari
Grammar At first look at this sentence The lucky boys In English we have strict rules for combining words in to phrase Grammar: The process of describing the structure of phrases&sentences in such away for all the grammatical sequence in a language
Traditional grammar The terms article,adjective and noune that we used to lable the grammatical categories come from traditional grammar which has its origins in latin & Greek. The grammar of these language was taken to be the modal for other grammars
Part of speech 1.Nouns:are words used to refer to people(boy),objects(table),creature(dog) places(school),qualities(roughness) phenomena(earthquake),abstract idea(love) 2.Articles:are words (a,an,the)used with nouns to make noun phrases 3.Adjective:are words used typically with nouns to provide more information about things referred to 4.Verbs:are words used to refer to various kind of action& states 5.Adverbs:are words used typically with verbs to provide more information about action,states&events 6.Proposions:are words (at,in,on,near,with,..)used with nouns in phrases to give information about time,place,… 7.Pronouns:are words used in place of noun phrases(she,herself,it,you,…) 8.Conjunctions:are words used to make connections&indicate relationships between events(and,because,but,when,….)
Agreements Including number,person, tense,voice and gender 1.Number:the noun is singular or plural 2.Person:it s first,second or third person 3.Tense:verb in the sentence is past,peresent or future 4.Voice:verb is in active voice or passive voice 5.Gender:dirived from a biological distinction between male&female
Grammatical gender Natural gender is based on sex(male&female) but grammatical gender is based on the type of noun (masculine&feminine) the grammatical gender is very usefuly applied in describing a number of languages(including latin,German),but May not be appropriate for describing forms in other languages such as English
Traditional analysis Each of the Latin verb forms is different,according to the categories of person and number but the English verb forms are mostly the same. Present tense,active voice (love amare) (I) love amo (you) love amas (she,he,it) loves amat (we) love amamus (you) love amatis (they) love amant
The prescriptive approach A set of rules for the proper use of language. for example: 1-you most not split an infinitive. 2-you most not end a sentence with a preposition. 3-should never begin a sentence with and. The prescriptive approach:analysts collected samples of the language they were interested in and attempted to describe the regular structures of the language as it was used,not according to some view of how it should be used.
Structure analysis one type of descriptive approach and it s main concern is to investigate the distribution of forms in a language with use of test- frames method for example: _ _ _ _ _ make a lot of noise. the common label for this category i “noun pharase”
Immediate constituent analysis this approach is designed to show how small constituents in sentences go to gather to form larger constituents. for example: the dog loved the girl The =article Dog =noun noun phrase sentence Loved =verb The =article verb phrase Girl =noun noun phrase
But we should note that constituent analaysis is not only useful for describing of English sentences We can show it with a Gaelic sentence: Chunnaic an gille an cu dubh scottish Saw the boy the dog black The boy saw the black dog English Gaelic sentence is organized with a : V NP NP structure English sentence is organize with a :NP V NP structure.
Questions 1.The view of grammar as a set of rules for the proper use of a language is still found today is called ………….. 1-discriptive approach 2-prescriptive approach 3-constituent grammar 4-generative grammar 2.Small ………….in sentences go together to form larger constituents. 1- components 2-labels 3-techniques 4-rules 3.Unlike natural gender,grammatical gender is based on the ……….of noun&is not tied to sex. 1-family 2-form 3-activity 4-type 4.in ………..The grammar of ……...and ………are taken to be the model for other grammar. 1-prescriptive grammar,latin&English 2-traditional grammar,Greak&Latin 3-prescriptive grammar,latin&Greak 4-traditional grammar,Greak&English 5.Collecting samples of language&explaining them as they are used is the main concern of …………….. 1-the prescriptive approach 2-the descriptive 3-traditional analysis 4-traditional grammar 6.Which sentence is not true? 1-natural gender is derived from biological distinctions 2-natural gender is based on sex 3-grammatical gender is based on the type of noun 4-grammatical gender is tied to sex 2-