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Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-1 Chapter 17 Environmental and social management accounting

2 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-2 Corporate social responsibility and external reporting Involves taking into account the social and environmental impact of corporate activity when making decisions –May increase profitability –Determine long-term survival Communicated to stakeholders in annual reports, environment reports, stakeholder impact reports, social impact reports and social audit reports continued

3 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-3 Corporate social responsibility and external reporting Triple bottom line reporting –Focus on financial (economic), social and environmental aspects of performance –Aimed at a broader range of stakeholders Social performance –Impact of an organisation's behaviour on society, including the broader community, employees, customers and suppliers Environmental performance –Impact of an organisation's behaviour on the environment, including natural systems of land, air and water, people and other living organisms

4 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-4 Environmental management accounting (EMA) Consists of environmentally-related management accounting systems and practices Life cycle costing, environmental cost accounting, environmental performance measures, assessment of environmental benefits, strategic planning for environmental management EMA techniques –Financially-oriented EMA –Physically-oriented EMA

5 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-5 Financially-oriented EMA Environmental costs –Incurred to prevent, monitor and report environmental impacts –Cost of waste management systems, environmental training, legal activities and fines, record keeping and reporting, cost of remediation of environmental impacts Environmental product costing –Involves tracing direct and indirect environmental costs to products –The cost of waste management, permits and fees, recycling continued

6 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-6 Financially-oriented EMA Environmentally-linked capital expenditure –Driven by the desire to improve the organisation's environmental impact, or by the need to comply with environmental regulations Environmentally-induced revenues –Arise from positive environmental actions of the organisation –Increased revenue from the sale of recycled materials, from higher selling prices for greener products –Increased customer satisfaction, improved employee morale, increase in future profits

7 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-7 Physically-oriented EMA –Mechanisms that focus on supplying information that accounts for the organisations impact on the natural environment –Kilograms of noxious waste emissions, kilowatt hours of electricity used, decibels of noise –Used for tactical decisions and capital expenditure decisions

8 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-8 Environmental management systems (EMS) and EMA Systems that organisations put in place to manage their environmental performance Recycling systems, systems to monitor and control levels of liquids, material and atmospheric discharge and waste ISO is an international standard for EMA and its audit EMS and adoption of ISO requires that environmental performance be measured against policies, objectives and targets

9 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-9 The benefits of recognising environmental and social impacts There is an increasing awareness that recognising environmental and societal impacts can have broad implications for an organisation Attracting highly skilled employees who wish to work for an environmentally-responsible organisation Enhancement of the organisations reputation as a responsible and caring organisation Identification of potential cost savings continued

10 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith The benefits of recognising environmental and social impacts Reduction of risk of current and future activities More effective management of resources Improvements in competitiveness –Greater attractiveness to customers –Positive reputation

11 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Difficulties in recognising and measuring environmental and social impacts Costs of environmental impacts are often hidden or forgotten, even though they may be substantial They may be difficult to recognise Future ecological and social issues are not yet known –Current work practices and operations may have future environmental and social consequences which we cannot predict Many costs and benefits are external to the organisation –Difficult to detect and assess continued

12 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Difficulties in recognising and measuring environmental and social impacts Many costs and benefits are difficult to measure in financial terms –They relate to the future, and the size of the impact may be unknown Defining environmental costs –The costs that an organisation incurs to prevent, monitor and report environmental impacts –US EPA defines 5 tiers of environmental costs –Private costs (tiers 1 to 4) and societal costs

13 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-13

14 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-14

15 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Analysing environmental costs Environmental costs can be analysed as relating to the following activities Prevention activities –Solve environmental problems before they occur, or turn problems into opportunities –Costs of these activities are investments, as they reduce the future outlays and provide long-term benefits Appraisal activities –Monitor the levels of environmental impact –Measuring damage, inspecting processes and products, auditing supplier performance continued

16 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Analysing environmental costs Internal failure activities –Correct breakdowns discovered in appraisal activities –Cost of cleaning the plant after spillage, cost of occupational health and safety claims by employees External failure activities –Occur when resolution and remediation efforts fall outside of the organisations management –Cost of cleaning up polluted sites, fines for environmental damage, lost profits associated with damage to reputation

17 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-17

18 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Improving supply chain management through environmental and social accounting Suppliers –An organisation may be willing to pay more for supplies that have reduced environmental and social impacts –Organisations working with suppliers to adopt more responsible environmental and societal practices, can lead to cost reductions –Formal supplier evaluation can include assessment of a range of environmental and social factors, as well as financial factors continued

19 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-19

20 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Improving supply chain management through environmental and social accounting Customers –An organisation can work with customers to reduce the adverse environmental and social impact of products Recycling and disposal programs Substitution of materials Cost savings –Sometimes customers may be willing to pay more for a more environmentally-friendly product –Marketing and strategic considerations need to be considered in such pricing decisions continued

21 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-21

22 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Measuring environmental and social performance ISO environmental performance indicators –Operational performance indicators include measures of waste levels and energy consumption relative to sales or some other activity –Management performance indicators measure the efforts of management to improve environmental performance –Environmental performance indicators measure the condition of the environment at a local, national or global level continued

23 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Measuring environmental and social performance A socially balanced scorecard –Environmental or social dimensions may be added to the balance scorecard Measuring and reporting social values –Some organisations include these measures in their annual report to shareholders, in triple bottom line reports or in specialised reports to stakeholders

24 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-24

25 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-25

26 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Social audits A formal process where organisations measure and report the extent to which they have operated in accordance with their stated values and objectives Requires the involvement of many stakeholders The outcomes of the audit are subject to external verification Problems may be highlighted and stakeholders invited to assist with solutions Helps managers understand stakeholders concerns

27 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Environmental outcomes: capital expenditure analysis Consideration of environmental cost and benefits –May make financially non-viable projects more attractive –May make financially viable projects less attractive The weighting given to environmental cost and benefits depends on the organisation's values and preferences Some capital expenditure analysis may be driven by the need to be environmentally responsible –Compliance with environmental regulations continued

28 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith Environmental outcomes: capital expenditure analysis Some environmental costs and benefits can be included in the financial analysis Some factors are considered after the financial analysis, such as –Benefits/losses to the environment –Impact on employee attitudes –Impact on community attitudes or concerns –Impact on the organisations reputation

29 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-29

30 Copyright 2006 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Management Accounting: Information for managing and creating value 4e Slides prepared by Kim Langfield-Smith 17-30


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