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1 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

2 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill These PowerPoint slides have been designed for use by students and instructors using the Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity textbook by Conrad Kottak. These files contain short outlines of the content of the chapters, as well as selected photographs, maps, and tables. Students may find these outlines useful as a study guide or a tool for review. Instructors may find these files useful as a basis for building their own lecture slides or as handouts. Both audiences will notice that many of the slides contain more text than one would use in a typical oral presentation, but it was felt that it would be better to err on the side of a more complete outline in order to accomplish the goals above. Both audiences should feel free to edit, delete, rearrange, and rework these files to build the best personalized outline, review, lecture, or handout for their needs. Using These Slides

3 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Student CD-ROMthis fully interactive student CD-ROM is packaged free of charge with every new textbook and features the following unique tools: How To Ace This Course: Animated book walk-through Expert advice on how to succeed in the course (provided on video by the University of Michigan) Learning styles assessment program Study skills primer Internet primer Guide to electronic research Chapter-by-Chapter Electronic Study Guide: Video clip from a University of Michigan lecture on the text chapter Interactive map exercise Chapter objectives and outline Key terms with an audio pronunciation guide Self-quizzes (multiple choice, true/false, and short-answer questions with feedback indicating why your answer is correct or incorrect) Critical thinking essay questions Internet exercises Vocabulary flashcards Chapter-related web links Cool Stuff: Interactive globe Study break links Contents of Student CD-ROM

4 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Students Online Learning Centerthis free web-based student supplement features many of the same tools as the Student CD-ROM (so students can access these materials either online or on CD, whichever is convenient), but also includes: An entirely new self-quiz for each chapter (with feedback, so students can take two pre-tests prior to exams) Career opportunities Additional chapter-related readings Anthropology FAQs PowerPoint lecture notes Monthly updates Contents of Online Learning Center

5 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill ChapChaptteerrChapChaptteerrter 23 This chapter discusses the results of contact between cultures of uneven influence. It focuses on how cultures can attempt to become dominant and how others might resist. It also examines the spread of American popular culture throughout the world as a case study. Cultural Exchange and Survival

6 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Contact and Domination The increased contact among cultures has created increased possibilities for the domination of one group by another, through various means. Backed by military force, the Indonesian annexation of East Timor involved civil repression, persecution of Christians, and torture. Photo Credit: H. Schwarzbach/Still Pictures/Peter Arnold

7 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Development and Environmentalism Currently, domination comes most frequently in the form of core-based multinational corporations causing economic change in Third World cultures. It is noted that even well-intentioned interference (such as the environmentalist movement) may be treated as a form of cultural domination by subject populations. Two sources of culture clash: When development threatens indigenous peoples and their environments (e.g., Brazil and New Guinea). When external relations threaten indigenous peoples (e.g., Madagascar, where sweeping international environmental regulations affect traditional subsistence lifeways).

8 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Religious Change Indiana Jones is symbolic of western domination of all cultural aspects based upon specialized technological efficiency. Religious homogenization is a technique frequently used by states trying to subdue groups encompassed by their borders.

9 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Variation in Systems of Domination Scott (1990) differentiates between public and hidden transcripts of culturally and politically oppressed peoples. Public transcript refers to the open, public interactions between dominators and the oppressed. Hidden transcript refers to the critique of power that goes on offstage, where the dominators cannot see it. Gramscis (1971) notion of hegemony applies to a politically hierarchical system wherein in the dominant ideology of the elites has been internalized by members of the lower classes. Bourdieu (1977) and Foucault (1979) argue that it is much easier to control people's minds than try to control their bodies.

10 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Weapons of the Weak As James Scotts (1990) work on Malay peasants suggests, oppressed groups may use subtle, non-confrontational methods to resist various forms of domination. Examples of antihegemonic discourse include rituals (e.g., Carnaval) and folk literature. Resistance is more likely to be public when the oppressed come together in groups (hence the anti-assembly laws of the antebellum South).

11 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Cultural Imperialism Cultural imperialism refers to the spread of one culture at the expense of others usually because of differential economic or political influence. While mass media and related technology have contributed to the erosion of local cultures, they are increasingly being used as media for the outward diffusion of local cultures (e.g., television in Brazil).

12 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Cultural Imperialism Some French have protested against Euro Disneyland, which they see as American cultural imperialism. Photo Credit: Gamma Liaison

13 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Making and Remaking Culture A text is defined as something that is creatively read, interpreted, and assigned meaning by each person who receives it. Readers of a text all derive their own meanings and feelings which may be different from what the creators of the text intended. The hegemonic reading refers to the reading or meaning that the creators of a text intended.

14 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Popular Culture According to Fiske (1989), each individual's use of popular culture is a creative act. Popular culture can be used to express resistance.

15 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Indigenizing Popular Culture Cultural forms exported from one culture to another do not necessarily carry the same meaning from the former context to the latter context. Aboriginal interpretations of the movie, Rambo, demonstrate that meaning can be produced from a text, not by a text. Appadurais analysis of Philippine indigenization of some American music forms demonstrates the uniqueness of the indigenized form.

16 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill A World System of Images Mass media can spread and create national and ethnic identities. Cross-cultural studies show that locally produced television shows are preferred to foreign imports. Mass media plays an important role in maintaining ethnic and national identities among people who lead transnational lives.

17 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Transnational Culture As with mass media, the flow of capital has become decentralized, carrying with it the cultural influences of many different sources (e.g., the United States, Japan, Britain, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands). Migrant labor also contributes to cultural diffusion. Maria Gomes on Brazils Tapajos River. Ms. Gomes is the Avon zone manager for 970 representatives in the Amazon rain forest. Photo Credit: Bob Crandall/Stock, Boston

18 © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Postmodernism Postmodernity describes our time and situationtodays world in flux, these people on the move who have learned to manage multiple identities depending on place and context. Postmodern refers the collapsing of old distinctions, rules, canons, and the like. Postmodernism (derived from the architectural style) refers the theoretical assertion and acceptance of multiple forms of rightness, in contradistinction to modernism, which was based in the assumed supremacy of Western technology and values. Globalization refers to the increasing connectedness of the world and its peoples. With this connectedness, however, come new bases for identities (e.g., the Panindian identity growing among formerly disparate tribes).


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