Presentation on theme: "What is Globalization? The increasing interdependence and interconnectedness The increasing interdependence and interconnectedness of places globally."— Presentation transcript:
What is Globalization? The increasing interdependence and interconnectedness The increasing interdependence and interconnectedness of places globally. of places globally.
Implications of Globalization The stretching of global connections, relations and networks Making them faster and more intense. Increasing awareness about the world.
Interdependence of Places Place have become increasingly interdependent. Caused by a set of interrelated forces or processes that we call globalization. Globalization helps to extend and deepen linkages between sets of places (and peoples)
Why Geography Still Matters Questions of POWER: Global flows are managed in particular place(s) Global flows generate uneven spatial impacts. Human Geography has become more rather than less important.
World-system CORE - Industrialized, market-oriented countries –Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia. PERIPHERY - Poor, ex-colonial nations –Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc. SEMI-PERIPHERY - Partially industrialized ex-colonial nations (both exploited and exploiter) —South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, etc.
Not regional geography approach Country-by-country, or region-by-region Examines internal geography of each world region. Does not adequately show connections between regions (basis of globalization)
Systematic geography approach Through human geographic lenses: Population geography Cultural geography Economic geography Urban geography Political geography Some environmental geography
Population geography Growth in Periphery “Graying” in Core Resulting changes in migration patterns Causes and consequences of forced migration.
Cultural geography Relationship between place & cultural identity. Cultural homogenization (Americanization) from globalization? Yet cultural differences across places are becoming significant?
Economic geography Rising economic interdependence among places. Local responses in turn affect globalization. “Glocalization” a better term than globalization?
Political geography Economics supposedly eroding significance of borders. Ethnic minorities feel they deserve states of their own. States under attack from above (global economics) and from below (ethnic communities). Yet states are still powerful, and can respond.
Urban geography Different types of cities in core and periphery. How globalization affects cities. Are they still needed in the information age ? Strong reasons for cities to still exist.
Watershed moment in human history Dramatic changes in social, cultural, political, economic relations at the… Global scale State (national) scale Regional scale Local scale Scales interrelate, affect each other
Changes since 1990 Collapse of Soviet Union, end of Cold War. Rise of local ethnic/religious nationalism. New forms and locations of warfare. Communications revolution (Internet). Massive increase in economic globalization.
Collapse of Soviet bloc Changes in former Soviet Union and allies. Changes in the developing world. Changes in the U.S., now without a powerful enemy.
Rise of ethnic nationalism Soviet, Yugoslav breakups. Minority ethnic groups looking to end majority “oppression.” Increased local/ethnic identity as reaction to impersonal globalization. Increased ability to survive as smaller country.
Communications revolution Only 50 websites in 1992; 2.5 billion + today. Internet makes world more connected, yet in more specialized niches. Can be used for globalization from above, or from below.
New forms and locations of warfare Smaller, more brutal wars. Military technologies more efficient, usually not made by combatants. Freelancers can wage war Physical distance or borders no longer protect
Economic Globalization Country 1Country 2 From above (elites) From below
Globalization from above Globalization from the top down Increasing power of corporations through internationalizing of production and marketing. Financial markets transcend national boundaries. Telecommunications spreads ideas, cultures
Players in globalization from above Governments and elites in every country Multinational corporations International agencies (UN) Global trade/finance agencies – World Bank,IMF, WTO
Globalization from below Globalization from the bottom up. Greater economic interdependence eroding governments? Increasing influence of local scale to affect global policies: “Think Globally, Act Locally.” Easier communications among those at the bottom?
Players in globalization from below Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) — Greenpeace, Amnesty Int’l, etc. Alliances of communities with a common concern, linked through Internet. –Seattle WTO protests, 1999 Some international agencies
Mental map of the world “Cognitive maps” show our perception of a place, from memory only. Be as accurate as you can about the size, shape, and location of world regions. Don’t need grids. Show as much as you possibly can. Be detailed about features, place names, political borders, etc. Don’t worry about geographic knowledge or artistic skills! No grade will be given, put your section number, but not name.