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Chapter 12- Jazz-Rock Styles My main thing is to create and not to compare… I dont wanna be like I used to be years ago… Stravinsky never wrote anything.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12- Jazz-Rock Styles My main thing is to create and not to compare… I dont wanna be like I used to be years ago… Stravinsky never wrote anything."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12- Jazz-Rock Styles My main thing is to create and not to compare… I dont wanna be like I used to be years ago… Stravinsky never wrote anything the same way. Miles Davis Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 Jazz influences on fifties rock: Bill Haley and the Comets combined western swing style with country music and jazz The blues became rockabilly when preformed by Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, and Jerry Lee Lewis Jazz instruments such as saxophone were used to play jazz-styled improvisations in recordings by Little Richard, and others 12-2

3 Jazz Big (or Swing) Bands: Played from musical arrangements Improvisation limited to solos accompanied by other band instruments Rhythm section piano acoustic or amplified guitar string bass drums Horn section Brass instruments several trumpets trombones Woodwind instruments, saxophones sometimes clarinets and/or flutes 12-3

4 Jazz and Rock style comparison Jazz style: Improvisation involves a jazz sense including: How long to dwell on a note When to bend it What notes to accentuate and what ones to merely suggest What liberties to take with the beat When to play non-chordal notes When to move away from the rhythms of the accompaniment When to be quiet and break the constancy of the solo Rock style: Improvised solos tend to stay closer to the accompanying instruments: Stay within the scale or mode of the rhythm section Repeat melodic patterns Stay close to the beat played by the rhythm section Solos often very fast, flashy, and continuous 12-4

5 Jazz Rock Combined the horn section sound of swing dance music with a rock rhythm section and a rock beat, generally included vocals Late-sixties Jazz Rock bands: Electric Flag (formed in 1967) Singer – Nick Gravenites Horn section – trumpet, tenor and baritone saxophones Rhythm section - keyboards, bass, and drums Chicago (formed in 1967) Singer – Terry Kath Horn section – trumpet, trombone, and saxophone Rhythm section – guitar, keyboards, bass, and drums 12-5

6 Blood, Sweat and Tears (formed in 1968): Many personnel changes through career, beginning instrumentation included: Singer Al Kooper Horn section 2 trumpets trombone alto saxophone recorder flute Rhythm section keyboards guitar bass drums Late 1968 – Kooper left, replaced by David Clayton-Thomas 12-6

7 Listening Guide: Spinning Wheel by Blood, Sweat and Tears (1968) Tempo: 96 beats per minute with 4 beats per bar, but the speed doubles during the instrumental section that precedes the last A section. The last A section returns to the beginning tempo Form: Most sections are 8 bars, with some extensions Features: The recording begins with a crescendo in the horn section, then the horns playing one bar of sixteenth notes (4 notes to a beat) Even beat subdivisions are used except during the bebop jazz-style trumpet solo Stop time is used in the a sections Drums sometimes accent the backbeat, not always The meter changes to 9 eighth notes per bar at the end The recording ends with maracas shaking and band members making casual comments Lyrics: The spinning wheel compares life to gambling and fate. Charts: Pop, #2 for three weeks, R&B, #5 12-7

8 Fusion: An experimental jazz style that made use of rock instrumentation, took rhythmic and melodic patterns from rock, generally avoided vocals Miles Davis (1926-1991), jazz trumpet player, writer, band leader, created the styles of Cool Jazz in 1949s and Fusion in 1968 Specific rock elements in Fusion – 1. Evenly subdivided beats in drums 2. Bass plays short repeated riffs 3. Electric instruments from rock bands used including electric piano, electric guitar, electric bass guitar, and various electronic devices to alter sounds Fusion bands that were formed by members of Miles Davis original fusion group include Mahavishnu Orchestra, Weather Report, Return to Forever, and Headhunters 12-8

9 Listening Guide: Miles runs the Voodoo Down by Miles Davis (1969) Tempo: Varies from 116 beats per minute to 126 in the middle section, with 4-beats per bar Form: No standard form with repeated sections. Daviss use of a returning motive gives the effect of unity Features: Even beat subdivisions Jazz instruments include trumpet, soprano saxophone, bass clarinet, acoustic bass, and drums with other percussion Rock instruments include two electric pianos, electric bass guitar, electric lead guitar, and the use of distortion Electric guitar plays rhythmic punctuations in a funk style No standard chord progression, but many chord extensions and nonchordal tones are used Some solos use dorian mode (natural notes from D to D) Some use of polyrhythms in thick background Lyrics: No vocals 12-9

10 Rock musicians who played fusion or other jazz-influenced styles: Carlos Santana (born in 1947), guitarist, singer, songwriter, worked with fusion musicians Dixie Grits, later Dixie Dregs, started by southern- rock guitarist Steve Morse and bassist Andy West Steely Dan, started by pianist Donald Fagen and guitarist/bassist Walter Becker and added many jazz musicians to their recordings sessions 12-10

11 Listening Guide: Rikki Dont Lose That Number by Steely Dan (1974) Tempo: 120 beats per minute, 4 beats per bar Form: After a six-bar introduction, A and B sections vary in length Features: Even beat subdivisions A marimba-like instrument plays an ad-lib introduction, then acoustic piano, bass guitar, and drums enter and establish a relaxed Latin beat A bell tree adds shimmering effect several times Lyrics: The singer adopts the persona of the tempter who is trying to persuade Rikki to reconsider his or her decision not to engage in a wild time. Charts: Pop, #4, British hits, #58 12-11

12 Discussion Questions: Miles Davis started two important styles of music: cool jazz and fusion. He said that he tried new things to keep from repeating what he had done in the past. Is that how most new artistic ideas come about? Do any current bands use jazz instrumentation such as a horn section? 12-12

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